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Index Entry Section

E
EBCDIC12.2.6 Translating Between Characters and Numbers
egrep utility2.4 Using Character Lists
egrep utility13.2.2 Searching for Regular Expressions in Files
egrep.awk program13.2.2 Searching for Regular Expressions in Files
elements in arrays7.2 Referring to an Array Element
elements in arrays, assigning7.3 Assigning Array Elements
elements in arrays, deleting7.6 The delete Statement
elements in arrays, order of7.5 Scanning All Elements of an Array
elements in arrays, scanning7.5 Scanning All Elements of an Array
email address for bug reports, bug-gawk@gnu.orgB.5 Reporting Problems and Bugs
EMISTERED10.3 Using gawk for Network Programming
empty pattern6.1.5 The Empty Pattern
empty strings, See null strings3.5.1 Using Regular Expressions to Separate Fields
END pattern6.1.4 The BEGIN and END Special Patterns
END pattern, assert user-defined function and12.2.3 Assertions
END pattern, backslash continuation and13.2.2 Searching for Regular Expressions in Files
END pattern, Boolean patterns and6.1.2 Expressions as Patterns
END pattern, exit statement and6.4.10 The exit Statement
END pattern, next/nextfile statements and6.1.4.2 Input/Output from BEGIN and END Rules
END pattern, next/nextfile statements and6.4.8 The next Statement
END pattern, operators and6.1.4.1 Startup and Cleanup Actions
END pattern, pgawk program10.5 Profiling Your awk Programs
END pattern, print statement and6.1.4.2 Input/Output from BEGIN and END Rules
endfile user-defined function12.3.1 Noting Data File Boundaries
endgrent function (C library)12.6 Reading the Group Database
endgrent user-defined function12.6 Reading the Group Database
endpwent function (C library)12.5 Reading the User Database
endpwent user-defined function12.5 Reading the User Database
ENVIRON variable6.5.2 Built-in Variables That Convey Information
ENVIRON variableC.3.1 A Minimal Introduction to gawk Internals
environment variables6.5.2 Built-in Variables That Convey Information
epoch, definition ofGlossary
equals sign (=), = operator5.7 Assignment Expressions
equals sign (=), == operator5.10.2 Comparison Operators
equals sign (=), == operator5.14 Operator Precedence (How Operators Nest)
EREs (Extended Regular Expressions)2.4 Using Character Lists
ERRNO variable3.8 Explicit Input with getline
ERRNO variable6.5.2 Built-in Variables That Convey Information
ERRNO variableC.3.1 A Minimal Introduction to gawk Internals
ERRNO variableC.3.1 A Minimal Introduction to gawk Internals
error handling4.7.1 Special Files for Standard Descriptors
error handling, ERRNO variable and6.5.2 Built-in Variables That Convey Information
error output4.7.1 Special Files for Standard Descriptors
escape processing, gsub/gensub/sub functions8.1.3.1 More About `\' and `&' with sub, gsub, and gensub
escape sequences2.2 Escape Sequences
escape sequences, unrecognized11.2 Command-Line Options
evaluation orderAdvanced Notes: Operator Evaluation Order
evaluation order, concatenation5.6 String Concatenation
evaluation order, functions8.1.1 Calling Built-in Functions
examining fields3.2 Examining Fields
exclamation point (!), ! operator5.11 Boolean Expressions
exclamation point (!), ! operator5.14 Operator Precedence (How Operators Nest)
exclamation point (!), ! operator13.2.2 Searching for Regular Expressions in Files
exclamation point (!), != operator5.10.2 Comparison Operators
exclamation point (!), != operator5.14 Operator Precedence (How Operators Nest)
exclamation point (!), !~ operator2.1 How to Use Regular Expressions
exclamation point (!), !~ operator2.6 Case Sensitivity in Matching
exclamation point (!), !~ operator2.8 Using Dynamic Regexps
exclamation point (!), !~ operator5.1.3 Regular Expression Constants
exclamation point (!), !~ operator5.10.2 Comparison Operators
exclamation point (!), !~ operator5.10.2 Comparison Operators
exclamation point (!), !~ operator5.14 Operator Precedence (How Operators Nest)
exclamation point (!), !~ operator6.1.2 Expressions as Patterns
exit statement6.4.10 The exit Statement
exp function8.1.2 Numeric Functions
expand utility1.3 Some Simple Examples
expressions5. Expressions
expressions, as patterns6.1.2 Expressions as Patterns
expressions, assignment5.7 Assignment Expressions
expressions, Boolean5.11 Boolean Expressions
expressions, comparison5.10 Variable Typing and Comparison Expressions
expressions, conditional5.12 Conditional Expressions
expressions, matching, See comparison expressions5.10 Variable Typing and Comparison Expressions
expressions, selecting5.12 Conditional Expressions
Extended Regular Expressions (EREs)2.4 Using Character Lists
extension function (gawk)C.3.2.3 Integrating the Extensions
extensions, Bell Laboratories awkA.4 Extensions in the Bell Laboratories awk
extensions, in gawk, not in POSIX awkA.5 Extensions in gawk Not in POSIX awk
extensions, mawkB.6 Other Freely Available awk Implementations
extract.awk program13.3.7 Extracting Programs from Texinfo Source Files
extraction, of marked strings (internationalization)9.4.1 Extracting Marked Strings

F
false, logical5.9 True and False in awk
FDL (Free Documentation License)GNU Free Documentation License
features, adding to gawkC.2.1 Adding New Features
features, advanced, See advanced features11.5 Obsolete Options and/or Features
features, deprecated11.5 Obsolete Options and/or Features
features, undocumented11.6 Undocumented Options and Features
Fenlason, JayHistory of awk and gawk
Fenlason, JayA.6 Major Contributors to gawk
fflush function8.1.4 Input/Output Functions
fflush function, unsupported11.2 Command-Line Options
field numbers3.3 Nonconstant Field Numbers
field operator $3.2 Examining Fields
field operators, dollar sign as3.2 Examining Fields
field separators3.5 Specifying How Fields Are Separated
field separators6.5.1 Built-in Variables That Control awk
field separators6.5.1 Built-in Variables That Control awk
field separators, choice of3.5 Specifying How Fields Are Separated
field separators, FIELDWIDTHS variable and6.5.1 Built-in Variables That Control awk
field separators, in multiline records3.7 Multiple-Line Records
field separators, on command line3.5.3 Setting FS from the Command Line
field separators, POSIX and3.2 Examining Fields
field separators, POSIX andAdvanced Notes: Changing FS Does Not Affect the Fields
field separators, regular expressions as3.5 Specifying How Fields Are Separated
field separators, regular expressions as3.5.1 Using Regular Expressions to Separate Fields
field separators, See Also OFS3.4 Changing the Contents of a Field
field separators, spaces as13.2.1 Cutting out Fields and Columns
fields3. Reading Input Files
fields3.2 Examining Fields
fieldsD.1 What a Program Does
fields, adding3.4 Changing the Contents of a Field
fields, changing contents of3.4 Changing the Contents of a Field
fields, cutting13.2.1 Cutting out Fields and Columns
fields, examining3.2 Examining Fields
fields, number of3.2 Examining Fields
fields, numbers3.3 Nonconstant Field Numbers
fields, printing4.2 Examples of print Statements
fields, separating3.5 Specifying How Fields Are Separated
fields, separating3.5 Specifying How Fields Are Separated
fields, single-character3.5.2 Making Each Character a Separate Field
FIELDWIDTHS variable3.6 Reading Fixed-Width Data
FIELDWIDTHS variable6.5.1 Built-in Variables That Control awk
file descriptors4.7.1 Special Files for Standard Descriptors
file names, distinguishing6.5.2 Built-in Variables That Convey Information
file names, in compatibility mode4.7.4 Special File Name Caveats
file names, standard streams in gawk4.7.1 Special Files for Standard Descriptors
FILENAME variable3. Reading Input Files
FILENAME variable6.5.2 Built-in Variables That Convey Information
FILENAME variable, getline, setting with3.8.9 Points to Remember About getline
filenames, assignments as12.3.5 Treating Assignments as File Names
files, .mo9.2 GNU gettext
files, .mo, converting from .po9.5 A Simple Internationalization Example
files, .mo, specifying directory of9.2 GNU gettext
files, .mo, specifying directory of9.3 Internationalizing awk Programs
files, .po9.2 GNU gettext
files, .po9.4 Translating awk Programs
files, .po, converting to .mo9.5 A Simple Internationalization Example
files, /dev/… special files4.7.1 Special Files for Standard Descriptors
files, /inet/ (gawk)10.3 Using gawk for Network Programming
files, /p (gawk)10.4 Using gawk with BSD Portals
files, as single recordsAdvanced Notes: RS = "\0" Is Not Portable
files, awk programs in1.1.3 Running Long Programs
files, awkprof.out10.5 Profiling Your awk Programs
files, awkvars.out11.2 Command-Line Options
files, closing8.1.4 Input/Output Functions
files, descriptors, See file descriptors4.7.1 Special Files for Standard Descriptors
files, for process information4.7.2 Special Files for Process-Related Information
files, group12.6 Reading the Group Database
files, information about, retrievingC.3.2 Directory and File Operation Built-ins
files, initialization and cleanup12.3.1 Noting Data File Boundaries
files, input, See input files1.1.2 Running awk Without Input Files
files, log, timestamps in8.1.5 Using gawk's Timestamp Functions
files, managing12.3 Data File Management
files, managing, data file boundaries12.3.1 Noting Data File Boundaries
files, message object9.2 GNU gettext
files, message object, converting from portable object files9.5 A Simple Internationalization Example
files, message object, specifying directory of9.2 GNU gettext
files, message object, specifying directory of9.3 Internationalizing awk Programs
files, multiple passes over11.3 Other Command-Line Arguments
files, multiple, duplicating output into13.2.5 Duplicating Output into Multiple Files
files, output, See output files4.8 Closing Input and Output Redirections
files, password12.5 Reading the User Database
files, portable object9.2 GNU gettext
files, portable object9.4 Translating awk Programs
files, portable object, converting to message object files9.5 A Simple Internationalization Example
files, portable object, generating11.2 Command-Line Options
files, portal10.4 Using gawk with BSD Portals
files, processing, ARGIND variable and6.5.2 Built-in Variables That Convey Information
files, reading12.3.2 Rereading the Current File
files, reading, multiline records3.7 Multiple-Line Records
files, searching for regular expressions13.2.2 Searching for Regular Expressions in Files
files, skipping12.3.3 Checking for Readable Data Files
files, source, search path for13.3.9 An Easy Way to Use Library Functions
files, splitting13.2.4 Splitting a Large File into Pieces
files, Texinfo, extracting programs from13.3.7 Extracting Programs from Texinfo Source Files
Fish, FredA.6 Major Contributors to gawk
Fish, FredB.5 Reporting Problems and Bugs
fixed-width data3.6 Reading Fixed-Width Data
flag variables5.11 Boolean Expressions
flag variables13.2.5 Duplicating Output into Multiple Files
floating-pointD.3.2 Floating Point Numbers Are Not Abstract Numbers
floating-point, numbersD.2 Data Values in a Computer
floating-point, numbers, AWKNUM internal typeC.3.1 A Minimal Introduction to gawk Internals
FNR variable3.1 How Input Is Split into Records
FNR variable6.5.2 Built-in Variables That Convey Information
FNR variable, changingAdvanced Notes: Changing NR and FNR
for statement6.4.4 The for Statement
for statement, in arrays7.5 Scanning All Elements of an Array
force_number internal functionC.3.1 A Minimal Introduction to gawk Internals
force_string internal functionC.3.1 A Minimal Introduction to gawk Internals
format specifiers, mixing regular with positional specifiers9.4.2 Rearranging printf Arguments
format specifiers, printf statement4.5.2 Format-Control Letters
format specifiers, strftime function (gawk)8.1.5 Using gawk's Timestamp Functions
format strings4.5.1 Introduction to the printf Statement
formats, numeric output4.4 Controlling Numeric Output with print
formatting output4.5 Using printf Statements for Fancier Printing
forward slash (/)2. Regular Expressions
forward slash (/), / operator5.14 Operator Precedence (How Operators Nest)
forward slash (/), /= operator5.7 Assignment Expressions
forward slash (/), /= operator5.14 Operator Precedence (How Operators Nest)
forward slash (/), /= operator, vs. /=…/ regexp constantAdvanced Notes: Syntactic Ambiguities Between `/=' and Regular Expressions
forward slash (/), patterns and6.1.2 Expressions as Patterns
Free Documentation License (FDL)GNU Free Documentation License
Free Software Foundation (FSF)The GNU Project and This Book
Free Software Foundation (FSF)B.1.1 Getting the gawk Distribution
Free Software Foundation (FSF)Glossary
Free Software Foundation (FSF)Glossary
free_temp internal macroC.3.1 A Minimal Introduction to gawk Internals
FreeBSDGlossary
FS variable3.5 Specifying How Fields Are Separated
FS variable6.5.1 Built-in Variables That Control awk
FS variable, --field-separator option and11.2 Command-Line Options
FS variable, as null string3.5.2 Making Each Character a Separate Field
FS variable, as TAB character11.2 Command-Line Options
FS variable, changing value of3.5 Specifying How Fields Are Separated
FS variable, changing value of11.7 Known Bugs in gawk
FS variable, running awk programs and13.2.1 Cutting out Fields and Columns
FS variable, setting from command line3.5.3 Setting FS from the Command Line
FSF (Free Software Foundation)The GNU Project and This Book
FSF (Free Software Foundation)B.1.1 Getting the gawk Distribution
FSF (Free Software Foundation)Glossary
FSF (Free Software Foundation)Glossary
function calls5.13 Function Calls
functions, arrays as parameters to8.2.3 Calling User-Defined Functions
functions, built-in5.13 Function Calls
functions, built-in8. Functions
functions, built-in, adding to gawkC.3 Adding New Built-in Functions to gawk
functions, built-in, evaluation order8.1.1 Calling Built-in Functions
functions, defining8.2.1 Function Definition Syntax
functions, library12. A Library of awk Functions
functions, library, assertions12.2.3 Assertions
functions, library, associative arrays and12.1 Naming Library Function Global Variables
functions, library, C library12.4 Processing Command-Line Options
functions, library, character values as numbers12.2.6 Translating Between Characters and Numbers
functions, library, Cliff random numbers12.2.5 The Cliff Random Number Generator
functions, library, command-line options12.4 Processing Command-Line Options
functions, library, example program for using13.3.9 An Easy Way to Use Library Functions
functions, library, group database, reading12.6 Reading the Group Database
functions, library, managing data files12.3 Data File Management
functions, library, managing time12.2.8 Managing the Time of Day
functions, library, merging arrays into strings12.2.7 Merging an Array into a String
functions, library, nextfile statement12.2.1 Implementing nextfile as a Function
functions, library, rounding numbers12.2.4 Rounding Numbers
functions, library, user database, reading12.5 Reading the User Database
functions, names of7. Arrays in awk
functions, names of8.2.1 Function Definition Syntax
functions, recursive8.2.1 Function Definition Syntax
functions, return values, settingC.3.1 A Minimal Introduction to gawk Internals
functions, string-translation8.1.7 Using gawk's String-Translation Functions
functions, undefined8.2.3 Calling User-Defined Functions
functions, user-defined8.2 User-Defined Functions
functions, user-defined, calling8.2.3 Calling User-Defined Functions
functions, user-defined, counts10.5 Profiling Your awk Programs
functions, user-defined, library of12. A Library of awk Functions
functions, user-defined, next/nextfile statements and6.4.8 The next Statement
functions, user-defined, next/nextfile statements and6.4.9 Using gawk's nextfile Statement

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