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Footnotes

(1)

These commands are available on POSIX-compliant systems, as well as on traditional Unix-based systems. If you are using some other operating system, you still need to be familiar with the ideas of I/O redirection and pipes.

(2)

Often, these systems use gawk for their awk implementation!

(3)

All such differences appear in the index under the entry "differences in awk and gawk."

(4)

GNU stands for "GNU's not Unix."

(5)

The terminology "GNU/Linux" is explained in the Glossary.

(6)

Although we generally recommend the use of single quotes around the program text, double quotes are needed here in order to put the single quote into the message.

(7)

The `#!' mechanism works on Linux systems, systems derived from the 4.4-Lite Berkeley Software Distribution, and most commercial Unix systems.

(8)

The line beginning with `#!' lists the full file name of an interpreter to run and an optional initial command-line argument to pass to that interpreter. The operating system then runs the interpreter with the given argument and the full argument list of the executed program. The first argument in the list is the full file name of the awk program. The rest of the argument list contains either options to awk, or data files, or both.

(9)

In the C shell (csh), you need to type a semicolon and then a backslash at the end of the first line; see awk Statements Versus Lines, for an explanation. In a POSIX-compliant shell, such as the Bourne shell or bash, you can type the example as shown. If the command `echo $path' produces an empty output line, you are most likely using a POSIX-compliant shell. Otherwise, you are probably using the C shell or a shell derived from it.

(10)

On some very old systems, you may need to use `ls -lg' to get this output.

(11)

The `?' and `:' referred to here is the three-operand conditional expression described in Conditional Expressions. Splitting lines after `?' and `:' is a minor gawk extension; if `--posix' is specified (see section Command-Line Options), then this extension is disabled.

(12)

Yet Another Wiki Clone.

(13)

In other literature, you may see a character list referred to as either a character set, a character class, or a bracket expression.

(14)

Use two backslashes if you're using a string constant with a regexp operator or function.

(15)

Experienced C and C++ programmers will note that it is possible, using something like `IGNORECASE = 1 && /foObAr/ { … }' and `IGNORECASE = 0 || /foobar/ { … }'. However, this is somewhat obscure and we don't recommend it.

(16)

At least that we know about.

(17)

In POSIX awk, newlines are not considered whitespace for separating fields.

(18)

The sed utility is a "stream editor." Its behavior is also defined by the POSIX standard.

(19)

When FS is the null string ("") or a regexp, this special feature of RS does not apply. It does apply to the default field separator of a single space: `FS = " "'.

(20)

Older versions of gawk would interpret these names internally only if the system did not actually have a `/dev/fd' directory or any of the other special files listed earlier. Usually this didn't make a difference, but sometimes it did; thus, it was decided to make gawk's behavior consistent on all systems and to have it always interpret the special file names itself.

(21)

The technical terminology is rather morbid. The finished child is called a "zombie," and cleaning up after it is referred to as "reaping."

(22)

This is a full 16-bit value as returned by the wait system call. See the system manual pages for information on how to decode this value.

(23)

The internal representation of all numbers, including integers, uses double-precision floating-point numbers. On most modern systems, these are in IEEE 754 standard format.

(24)

Pathological cases can require up to 752 digits (!), but we doubt that you need to worry about this.

(25)

It happens that gawk and mawk "get it right," but you should not rely on this.

(26)

The POSIX standard has been revised. The revised standard's rules for typing and comparison are the same as just described for gawk.

(27)

This program has a bug; it prints lines starting with `END'. How would you fix it?

(28)

The original version of awk used to keep reading and ignoring input until the end of the file was seen.

(29)

In POSIX awk, newline does not count as whitespace.

(30)

Some early implementations of Unix awk initialized FILENAME to "-", even if there were data files to be processed. This behavior was incorrect and should not be relied upon in your programs.

(31)

Thanks to Michael Brennan for pointing this out.

(32)

The C version of rand is known to produce fairly poor sequences of random numbers. However, nothing requires that an awk implementation use the C rand to implement the awk version of rand. In fact, gawk uses the BSD random function, which is considerably better than rand, to produce random numbers.

(33)

Computer-generated random numbers really are not truly random. They are technically known as "pseudorandom." This means that while the numbers in a sequence appear to be random, you can in fact generate the same sequence of random numbers over and over again.

(34)

Unless you use the `--non-decimal-data' option, which isn't recommended. See section Allowing Nondecimal Input Data, for more information.

(35)

Note that this means that the record will first be regenerated using the value of OFS if any fields have been changed, and that the fields will be updated after the substitution, even if the operation is a "no-op" such as `sub(/^/, "")'.

(36)

This is different from C and C++, in which the first character is number zero.

(37)

This consequence was certainly unintended.

(38)

A program is interactive if the standard output is connected to a terminal device.

(39)

See section Glossary, especially the entries "Epoch" and "UTC."

(40)

The GNU date utility can also do many of the things described here. Its use may be preferable for simple time-related operations in shell scripts.

(41)

Occasionally there are minutes in a year with a leap second, which is why the seconds can go up to 60.

(42)

As this is a recent standard, not every system's strftime necessarily supports all of the conversions listed here.

(43)

If you don't understand any of this, don't worry about it; these facilities are meant to make it easier to "internationalize" programs. Other internationalization features are described in Internationalization with gawk.

(44)

This is because ISO C leaves the behavior of the C version of strftime undefined and gawk uses the system's version of strftime if it's there. Typically, the conversion specifier either does not appear in the returned string or appears literally.

(45)

This example shows that 0's come in on the left side. For gawk, this is always true, but in some languages, it's possible to have the left side fill with 1's. Caveat emptor.

(46)

For some operating systems, the gawk port doesn't support GNU gettext. This applies most notably to the PC operating systems. As such, these features are not available if you are using one of those operating systems. Sorry.

(47)

Americans use a comma every three decimal places and a period for the decimal point, while many Europeans do exactly the opposite: 1,234.56 versus 1.234,56.

(48)

Starting with gettext version 0.11.5, the xgettext utility that comes with GNU gettext can handle `.awk' files.

(49)

This example is borrowed from the GNU gettext manual.

(50)

This is good fodder for an "Obfuscated awk" contest.

(51)

Perhaps it would be better if it were called "Hippy." Ah, well.

(52)

This is very different from the same operator in the C shell, csh.

(53)

Not recommended.

(54)

Your version of gawk may use a different directory; it will depend upon how gawk was built and installed. The actual directory is the value of `$(datadir)' generated when gawk was configured. You probably don't need to worry about this, though.

(55)

The effects are not identical. Output of the transformed record will be in all lowercase, while IGNORECASE preserves the original contents of the input record.

(56)

While all the library routines could have been rewritten to use this convention, this was not done, in order to show how my own awk programming style has evolved and to provide some basis for this discussion.

(57)

gawk's `--dump-variables' command-line option is useful for verifying this.

(58)

http://mathworld.wolfram.com/CliffRandomNumberGenerator.html

(59)

ASCII has been extended in many countries to use the values from 128 to 255 for country-specific characters. If your system uses these extensions, you can simplify _ord_init to simply loop from 0 to 255.

(60)

It would be nice if awk had an assignment operator for concatenation. The lack of an explicit operator for concatenation makes string operations more difficult than they really need to be.

(61)

This function was written before gawk acquired the ability to split strings into single characters using "" as the separator. We have left it alone, since using substr is more portable.

(62)

It is often the case that password information is stored in a network database.

(63)

It also introduces a subtle bug; if a match happens, we output the translated line, not the original.

(64)

wc can't just use the value of FNR in endfile. If you examine the code in Noting Data File Boundaries, you will see that FNR has already been reset by the time endfile is called.

(65)

On some older System V systems, tr may require that the lists be written as range expressions enclosed in square brackets (`[a-z]') and quoted, to prevent the shell from attempting a file name expansion. This is not a feature.

(66)

This program was written before gawk acquired the ability to split each character in a string into separate array elements.

(67)

"Real world" is defined as "a program actually used to get something done."

(68)

Fully explaining the sh language is beyond the scope of this book. We provide some minimal explanations, but see a good shell programming book if you wish to understand things in more depth.

(69)

On some very old versions of awk, the test `getline junk < t' can loop forever if the file exists but is empty. Caveat emptor.

(70)

http://www.cygwin.com

(71)

http://cm.bell-labs.com/who/bwk

(72)

http://www.opensolaris.org

(73)

http://jawk.sourceforge.net

(74)

This version is edited slightly for presentation. The complete version can be found in `extension/filefuncs.c' in the gawk distribution.

(75)

Compiled programs are typically written in lower-level languages such as C, C++, Fortran, or Ada, and then translated, or compiled, into a form that the computer can execute directly.

(76)

http://www.validlab.com/goldberg/paper.ps.

(77)

Pathological cases can require up to 752 digits (!), but we doubt that you need to worry about this.

(78)

You asked for it, you got it.


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