This module uses the functions of OpenSSL for generation and verification of signatures and for sealing (encrypting) and opening (decrypting) data. OpenSSL offers many features that this module currently doesn't support. Some of these may be added in the future.
In order to use the OpenSSL functions you need to install the OpenSSL package. PHP between versions 4.0.5 and 4.3.1 will work with OpenSSL >= 0.9.5. Other versions (PHP <=4.0.4 and >= 4.3.2) require OpenSSL >= 0.9.6.
You are strongly encouraged to use the most recent OpenSSL version, otherwise your web server could be vulnerable to attack.
To use PHP's OpenSSL support you must also compile PHP
Note to Win32 Users: In order for this extension to work, there are DLL files that must be available to the Windows system PATH. See the FAQ titled "How do I add my PHP directory to the PATH on Windows" for information on how to do this. Although copying DLL files from the PHP folder into the Windows system directory also works (because the system directory is by default in the systems PATH), it is not recommended. This extension requires the following files to be in the PATH: libeay32.dll
Note to Win32 Users: Additionally, if you are planning to use the key generation and certificate signing functions, you will need to install a valid openssl.cnf on your system. As of PHP 4.3.0, we include a sample configuration file in the openssl folder of our win32 binary distribution. If you are using PHP 4.2.0 or later and are missing the file, you can obtain it from the OpenSSL home page or by downloading the PHP 4.3.0 release and using the configuration file from there.
PHP will search for the openssl.cnf using the following logic:
the OPENSSL_CONF environmental variable, if set, will be used as the path (including filename) of the configuration file.
the SSLEAY_CONF environmental variable, if set, will be used as the path (including filename) of the configuration file.
The file openssl.cnf will be assumed to be found in the default certificate area, as configured at the time that the openssl DLL was compiled. This is usually means that the default filename is c:\usr\local\ssl\openssl.cnf.
In your installation, you need to decide whether to install the configuration file at c:\usr\local\ssl\openssl.cnf or whether to install it someplace else and use environmental variables (possibly on a per-virtual-host basis) to locate the configuration file. Note that it is possible to override the default path from the script using the
configargsof the functions that require a configuration file.
This extension has no configuration directives defined in php.ini.
Quite a few of the openssl functions require a key or a certificate parameter. PHP 4.0.5 and earlier have to use a key or certificate resource returned by one of the openssl_get_xxx functions. Later versions may use one of the following methods:
An X.509 resource returned from openssl_x509_read()
A string having the format file://path/to/cert.pem; the named file must contain a PEM encoded certificate
A string containing the content of a certificate, PEM encoded
For public keys only: an X.509 resource
A string having the format file://path/to/file.pem - the named file must contain a PEM encoded certificate/private key (it may contain both)
A string containing the content of a certificate/key, PEM encoded
For private keys, you may also use the syntax array($key, $passphrase) where $key represents a key specified using the file:// or textual content notation above, and $passphrase represents a string containing the passphrase for that private key
When calling a function that will verify a signature/certificate, the cainfo parameter is an array containing file and directory names that specify the locations of trusted CA files. If a directory is specified, then it must be a correctly formed hashed directory as the openssl command would use.
The constants below are defined by this extension, and will only be available when the extension has either been compiled into PHP or dynamically loaded at runtime.
The S/MIME functions make use of flags which are specified using a bitfield which can include one or more of the following values:
Table 1. PKCS7 CONSTANTS
|PKCS7_TEXT||Adds text/plain content type headers to encrypted/signed message. If decrypting or verifying, it strips those headers from the output - if the decrypted or verified message is not of MIME type text/plain then an error will occur.|
|PKCS7_BINARY||Normally the input message is converted to "canonical" format which is effectively using CR and LF as end of line: as required by the S/MIME specification. When this options is present, no translation occurs. This is useful when handling binary data which may not be in MIME format.|
|PKCS7_NOINTERN||When verifying a message, certificates (if
any) included in the message are normally searched for the
signing certificate. With this option only the
certificates specified in the |
|PKCS7_NOVERIFY||Do not verify the signers certificate of a signed message.|
|PKCS7_NOCHAIN||Do not chain verification of signers certificates: that is don't use the certificates in the signed message as untrusted CAs.|
|PKCS7_NOCERTS||When signing a message the signer's certificate is normally
included - with this option it is excluded. This will reduce the
size of the signed message but the verifier must have a copy of the
signers certificate available locally (passed using the
|PKCS7_NOATTR||Normally when a message is signed, a set of attributes are included which include the signing time and the supported symmetric algorithms. With this option they are not included.|
|PKCS7_DETACHED||When signing a message, use cleartext signing with the MIME
type multipart/signed. This is the default
if you do not specify any |
|PKCS7_NOSIGS||Don't try and verify the signatures on a message|
Note: These constants were added in 4.0.6.
Note: These constants were added in 5.0.0.
Note: These constants were added in 4.3.0.