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A. Bison Symbols

Variable: @$

In an action, the location of the left-hand side of the rule. See section Locations Overview.

Variable: @n

In an action, the location of the n-th symbol of the right-hand side of the rule. See section Locations Overview.

Variable: $$

In an action, the semantic value of the left-hand side of the rule. See section Actions.

Variable: $n

In an action, the semantic value of the n-th symbol of the right-hand side of the rule. See section Actions.

Delimiter: %%

Delimiter used to separate the grammar rule section from the Bison declarations section or the epilogue. See section The Overall Layout of a Bison Grammar.

Delimiter: %{code%}

All code listed between `%{' and `%}' is copied directly to the output file uninterpreted. Such code forms the prologue of the input file. See section Outline of a Bison Grammar.

Construct: /*…*/

Comment delimiters, as in C.

Delimiter: :

Separates a rule's result from its components. See section Syntax of Grammar Rules.

Delimiter: ;

Terminates a rule. See section Syntax of Grammar Rules.

Delimiter: |

Separates alternate rules for the same result nonterminal. See section Syntax of Grammar Rules.

Directive: <*>

Used to define a default tagged %destructor or default tagged %printer.

This feature is experimental. More user feedback will help to determine whether it should become a permanent feature.

See section Freeing Discarded Symbols.

Directive: <>

Used to define a default tagless %destructor or default tagless %printer.

This feature is experimental. More user feedback will help to determine whether it should become a permanent feature.

See section Freeing Discarded Symbols.

Symbol: $accept

The predefined nonterminal whose only rule is `$accept: start $end', where start is the start symbol. See section The Start-Symbol. It cannot be used in the grammar.

Directive: %code {code}
Directive: %code qualifier {code}

Insert code verbatim into output parser source. See section %code.

Directive: %debug

Equip the parser for debugging. See section Bison Declaration Summary.

Directive: %debug

Equip the parser for debugging. See section Bison Declaration Summary.

Directive: %define define-variable
Directive: %define define-variable value

Define a variable to adjust Bison's behavior. See section %define.

Directive: %defines

Bison declaration to create a header file meant for the scanner. See section Bison Declaration Summary.

Directive: %defines defines-file

Same as above, but save in the file defines-file. See section Bison Declaration Summary.

Directive: %destructor

Specify how the parser should reclaim the memory associated to discarded symbols. See section Freeing Discarded Symbols.

Directive: %dprec

Bison declaration to assign a precedence to a rule that is used at parse time to resolve reduce/reduce conflicts. See section Writing GLR Parsers.

Symbol: $end

The predefined token marking the end of the token stream. It cannot be used in the grammar.

Symbol: error

A token name reserved for error recovery. This token may be used in grammar rules so as to allow the Bison parser to recognize an error in the grammar without halting the process. In effect, a sentence containing an error may be recognized as valid. On a syntax error, the token error becomes the current lookahead token. Actions corresponding to error are then executed, and the lookahead token is reset to the token that originally caused the violation. See section Error Recovery.

Directive: %error-verbose

Bison declaration to request verbose, specific error message strings when yyerror is called.

Directive: %file-prefix "prefix"

Bison declaration to set the prefix of the output files. See section Bison Declaration Summary.

Directive: %glr-parser

Bison declaration to produce a GLR parser. See section Writing GLR Parsers.

Directive: %initial-action

Run user code before parsing. See section Performing Actions before Parsing.

Directive: %language

Specify the programming language for the generated parser. See section Bison Declaration Summary.

Directive: %left

Bison declaration to assign left associativity to token(s). See section Operator Precedence.

Directive: %lex-param {argument-declaration}

Bison declaration to specifying an additional parameter that yylex should accept. See section Calling Conventions for Pure Parsers.

Directive: %merge

Bison declaration to assign a merging function to a rule. If there is a reduce/reduce conflict with a rule having the same merging function, the function is applied to the two semantic values to get a single result. See section Writing GLR Parsers.

Directive: %name-prefix "prefix"

Bison declaration to rename the external symbols. See section Bison Declaration Summary.

Directive: %no-lines

Bison declaration to avoid generating #line directives in the parser file. See section Bison Declaration Summary.

Directive: %nonassoc

Bison declaration to assign nonassociativity to token(s). See section Operator Precedence.

Directive: %output "file"

Bison declaration to set the name of the parser file. See section Bison Declaration Summary.

Directive: %parse-param {argument-declaration}

Bison declaration to specifying an additional parameter that yyparse should accept. See section The Parser Function yyparse.

Directive: %prec

Bison declaration to assign a precedence to a specific rule. See section Context-Dependent Precedence.

Directive: %pure-parser

Deprecated version of %define api.pure (see section %define), for which Bison is more careful to warn about unreasonable usage.

Directive: %require "version"

Require version version or higher of Bison. See section Require a Version of Bison.

Directive: %right

Bison declaration to assign right associativity to token(s). See section Operator Precedence.

Directive: %skeleton

Specify the skeleton to use; usually for development. See section Bison Declaration Summary.

Directive: %start

Bison declaration to specify the start symbol. See section The Start-Symbol.

Directive: %token

Bison declaration to declare token(s) without specifying precedence. See section Token Type Names.

Directive: %token-table

Bison declaration to include a token name table in the parser file. See section Bison Declaration Summary.

Directive: %type

Bison declaration to declare nonterminals. See section Nonterminal Symbols.

Symbol: $undefined

The predefined token onto which all undefined values returned by yylex are mapped. It cannot be used in the grammar, rather, use error.

Directive: %union

Bison declaration to specify several possible data types for semantic values. See section The Collection of Value Types.

Macro: YYABORT

Macro to pretend that an unrecoverable syntax error has occurred, by making yyparse return 1 immediately. The error reporting function yyerror is not called. See section The Parser Function yyparse.

For Java parsers, this functionality is invoked using return YYABORT; instead.

Macro: YYACCEPT

Macro to pretend that a complete utterance of the language has been read, by making yyparse return 0 immediately. See section The Parser Function yyparse.

For Java parsers, this functionality is invoked using return YYACCEPT; instead.

Macro: YYBACKUP

Macro to discard a value from the parser stack and fake a lookahead token. See section Special Features for Use in Actions.

Variable: yychar

External integer variable that contains the integer value of the lookahead token. (In a pure parser, it is a local variable within yyparse.) Error-recovery rule actions may examine this variable. See section Special Features for Use in Actions.

Variable: yyclearin

Macro used in error-recovery rule actions. It clears the previous lookahead token. See section Error Recovery.

Macro: YYDEBUG

Macro to define to equip the parser with tracing code. See section Tracing Your Parser.

Variable: yydebug

External integer variable set to zero by default. If yydebug is given a nonzero value, the parser will output information on input symbols and parser action. See section Tracing Your Parser.

Macro: yyerrok

Macro to cause parser to recover immediately to its normal mode after a syntax error. See section Error Recovery.

Macro: YYERROR

Macro to pretend that a syntax error has just been detected: call yyerror and then perform normal error recovery if possible (see section Error Recovery), or (if recovery is impossible) make yyparse return 1. See section Error Recovery.

For Java parsers, this functionality is invoked using return YYERROR; instead.

Function: yyerror

User-supplied function to be called by yyparse on error. See section The Error Reporting Function yyerror.

Macro: YYERROR_VERBOSE

An obsolete macro that you define with #define in the prologue to request verbose, specific error message strings when yyerror is called. It doesn't matter what definition you use for YYERROR_VERBOSE, just whether you define it. Using %error-verbose is preferred.

Macro: YYINITDEPTH

Macro for specifying the initial size of the parser stack. See section Memory Management, and How to Avoid Memory Exhaustion.

Function: yylex

User-supplied lexical analyzer function, called with no arguments to get the next token. See section The Lexical Analyzer Function yylex.

Macro: YYLEX_PARAM

An obsolete macro for specifying an extra argument (or list of extra arguments) for yyparse to pass to yylex. The use of this macro is deprecated, and is supported only for Yacc like parsers. See section Calling Conventions for Pure Parsers.

Variable: yylloc

External variable in which yylex should place the line and column numbers associated with a token. (In a pure parser, it is a local variable within yyparse, and its address is passed to yylex.) You can ignore this variable if you don't use the `@' feature in the grammar actions. See section Textual Locations of Tokens. In semantic actions, it stores the location of the lookahead token. See section Actions and Locations.

Type: YYLTYPE

Data type of yylloc; by default, a structure with four members. See section Data Types of Locations.

Variable: yylval

External variable in which yylex should place the semantic value associated with a token. (In a pure parser, it is a local variable within yyparse, and its address is passed to yylex.) See section Semantic Values of Tokens. In semantic actions, it stores the semantic value of the lookahead token. See section Actions.

Macro: YYMAXDEPTH

Macro for specifying the maximum size of the parser stack. See section Memory Management, and How to Avoid Memory Exhaustion.

Variable: yynerrs

Global variable which Bison increments each time it reports a syntax error. (In a pure parser, it is a local variable within yyparse. In a pure push parser, it is a member of yypstate.) See section The Error Reporting Function yyerror.

Function: yyparse

The parser function produced by Bison; call this function to start parsing. See section The Parser Function yyparse.

Function: yypstate_delete

The function to delete a parser instance, produced by Bison in push mode; call this function to delete the memory associated with a parser. See section The Parser Delete Function yypstate_delete. (The current push parsing interface is experimental and may evolve. More user feedback will help to stabilize it.)

Function: yypstate_new

The function to create a parser instance, produced by Bison in push mode; call this function to create a new parser. See section The Parser Create Function yypstate_new. (The current push parsing interface is experimental and may evolve. More user feedback will help to stabilize it.)

Function: yypull_parse

The parser function produced by Bison in push mode; call this function to parse the rest of the input stream. See section The Pull Parser Function yypull_parse. (The current push parsing interface is experimental and may evolve. More user feedback will help to stabilize it.)

Function: yypush_parse

The parser function produced by Bison in push mode; call this function to parse a single token. See section The Push Parser Function yypush_parse. (The current push parsing interface is experimental and may evolve. More user feedback will help to stabilize it.)

Macro: YYPARSE_PARAM

An obsolete macro for specifying the name of a parameter that yyparse should accept. The use of this macro is deprecated, and is supported only for Yacc like parsers. See section Calling Conventions for Pure Parsers.

Macro: YYRECOVERING

The expression YYRECOVERING () yields 1 when the parser is recovering from a syntax error, and 0 otherwise. See section Special Features for Use in Actions.

Macro: YYSTACK_USE_ALLOCA

Macro used to control the use of alloca when the C LALR(1) parser needs to extend its stacks. If defined to 0, the parser will use malloc to extend its stacks. If defined to 1, the parser will use alloca. Values other than 0 and 1 are reserved for future Bison extensions. If not defined, YYSTACK_USE_ALLOCA defaults to 0.

In the all-too-common case where your code may run on a host with a limited stack and with unreliable stack-overflow checking, you should set YYMAXDEPTH to a value that cannot possibly result in unchecked stack overflow on any of your target hosts when alloca is called. You can inspect the code that Bison generates in order to determine the proper numeric values. This will require some expertise in low-level implementation details.

Type: YYSTYPE

Data type of semantic values; int by default. See section Data Types of Semantic Values.


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