Tweaks and overrides

These snippets illustrate the Notation Reference, section Changing defaults.

See also Learning Manual, section Tweaking output.


Analysis brackets above the staff

Simple horizontal analysis brackets are added below the staff by default. The following example shows a way to place them above the staff instead.

\layout {
  \context {
    \Voice
    \consists "Horizontal_bracket_engraver"
  }
}
\relative c'' {
  \once \override HorizontalBracket #'direction = #UP
  c2\startGroup
  d2\stopGroup
}

[image of music]


Avoiding collisions with chord fingerings

Fingerings and string numbers applied to individual notes will automatically avoid beams and stems, but this is not true by default for fingerings and string numbers applied to the individual notes of chords. The following example shows how this default behavior can be overridden.

\relative c' {
  \set fingeringOrientations = #'(up)
  \set stringNumberOrientations = #'(up)
  \set strokeFingerOrientations = #'(up)
  
  % Default behavior
  r8
  <f c'-5>8
  <f c'\5>8
  <f c'-\rightHandFinger #2 >8
  
  % Corrected to avoid collisions
  r8
  \override Fingering #'add-stem-support = ##t
  <f c'-5>8
  \override StringNumber #'add-stem-support = ##t
  <f c'\5>8
  \override StrokeFinger #'add-stem-support = ##t
  <f c'-\rightHandFinger #2 >8
}

[image of music]


Caesura ("railtracks") with fermata

A caesura is sometimes denoted by a double "railtracks" breath mark with a fermata sign positioned above. This snippet should present an optically pleasing combination of railtracks and fermata.

\relative c'' {
  c2.
  % construct the symbol
  \override BreathingSign #'text = \markup {
    \line {
      \musicglyph #"scripts.caesura.curved"
      \translate #'(-1.75 . 1.6)
      \musicglyph #"scripts.ufermata"
    }
  }
  \breathe c4
  % set the breathe mark back to normal
  \revert BreathingSign #'text
  c2. \breathe c4
  \bar "|."
}

[image of music]


Changing a single note’s size in a chord

Individual note heads in a chord can be modified with the \tweak command inside a chord, by altering the font-size property.

Inside the chord (within the brackets < >), before the note to be altered, place the \tweak command, followed by #'font-size and define the proper size like #-2 (a tiny notehead).

\layout { ragged-right = ##t }
\relative {
  <\tweak #'font-size #+2 c e g c \tweak #'font-size #-2 e>1^\markup { A tiny e }_\markup { A big c }
}

[image of music]


Changing form of multi-measure rests

If there are ten or fewer measures of rests, a series of longa and breve rests (called in German "Kirchenpausen" - church rests) is printed within the staff; otherwise a simple line is shown. This default number of ten may be changed by overriding the expand-limit property:

\relative c'' {
  \compressFullBarRests
  R1*2 | R1*5 | R1*9
  \override MultiMeasureRest #'expand-limit = #3
  R1*2 | R1*5 | R1*9
}

[image of music]


Changing properties for individual grobs

The \applyOutput command allows the tuning of any layout object, in any context. It requires a Scheme function with three arguments.

#(define (mc-squared grob grob-origin context)
  (let*
    (
      (ifs (ly:grob-interfaces grob))
      (sp (ly:grob-property grob 'staff-position))
    )
    (if (memq 'note-head-interface ifs)
      (begin
        (ly:grob-set-property! grob 'stencil
          (grob-interpret-markup grob
            (make-lower-markup 0.5
              (case sp
                ((-5) "m")
                ((-3) "c ")
                ((-2) (make-smaller-markup (make-bold-markup "2")))
                (else "bla")
                ))))
        ))))

\relative c' {
  <d f g b>2
  \applyOutput #'Voice #mc-squared
  <d f g b>2
}

[image of music]


Changing text and spanner styles for text dynamics

The text used for crescendos and decrescendos can be changed by modifying the context properties crescendoText and decrescendoText. The style of the spanner line can be changed by modifying the 'style property of DynamicTextSpanner. The default value is 'hairpin, and other possible values include 'line, 'dashed-line and 'dotted-line:

\relative c'' {
  \set crescendoText = \markup { \italic { cresc. poco } }
  \set crescendoSpanner = #'text
  \override DynamicTextSpanner #'style = #'dotted-line
  a2\< a
  a2 a
  a2 a
  a2 a\mf
}

[image of music]


Changing the default text font family

The default font families for text can be overridden with make-pango-font-tree.

\paper {
  % change for other default global staff size. 
  myStaffSize = #20
  %{
     run
         lilypond -dshow-available-fonts blabla
     to show all fonts available in the process log.  
  %}

  #(define fonts
    (make-pango-font-tree "Times New Roman"
                          "Nimbus Sans"
                          "Luxi Mono"
;;                        "Helvetica"
;;                        "Courier"
     (/ myStaffSize 20)))
}

\relative c'' {
  c4^\markup {
    roman: foo \bold bla \italic bar \italic \bold baz 
  }
  c'4_\markup {
    \override #'(font-family . sans)
    {
      sans: foo \bold bla \italic bar \italic \bold baz
    }
  }
  c'2^\markup {
    \override #'(font-family . typewriter)
    {
      mono: foo \bold bla \italic bar \italic \bold baz
    }
  }
}  

[image of music]


Changing the staff size

Though the simplest way to resize staves is to use #(set-global-staff-size xx), an individual staff’s size can be changed by scaling the properties 'staff-space and fontSize.

<<
  \new Staff {
    \relative c'' {
      \dynamicDown
      c8\ff c c c c c c c
    }
  }
  \new Staff \with {
    fontSize = #-3
    \override StaffSymbol #'staff-space = #(magstep -3)
  } {
    \clef bass
    c8 c c c c\f c c c
  }
>>

[image of music]


Controlling the vertical ordering of scripts

The vertical ordering of scripts is controlled with the 'script-priority property. The lower this number, the closer it will be put to the note. In this example, the TextScript (the sharp symbol) first has the lowest priority, so it is put lowest in the first example. In the second, the prall trill (the Script) has the lowest, so it is on the inside. When two objects have the same priority, the order in which they are entered determines which one comes first.

\relative c''' {
  \once \override TextScript #'script-priority = #-100
  a2^\prall^\markup { \sharp }
  
  \once \override Script #'script-priority = #-100
  a2^\prall^\markup { \sharp }
}

[image of music]


Controlling tuplet bracket visibility

The default behavior of tuplet-bracket visibility is to print a bracket unless there is a beam of the same length as the tuplet. To control the visibility of tuplet brackets, set the property 'bracket-visibility to either #t (always print a bracket), #f (never print a bracket) or #'if-no-beam (only print a bracket if there is no beam).

music = \relative c'' {
  \times 2/3 { c16[ d e } f8]
  \times 2/3 { c8 d e }
  \times 2/3 { c4 d e }
}

\new Voice {
  \relative c' {
    << \music s4^"default" >>
    \override TupletBracket #'bracket-visibility = #'if-no-beam
    << \music s4^"'if-no-beam" >>
    \override TupletBracket #'bracket-visibility = ##t
    << \music s4^"#t" >>
    \override TupletBracket #'bracket-visibility = ##f
    << \music s4^"#f" >>
  }
} 

[image of music]


Creating a delayed turn

Creating a delayed turn, where the lower note of the turn uses the accidental, requires several overrides. The outside-staff-priority property must be set to #f, as otherwise this would take precedence over the avoid-slur property. The value of halign is used to position the turn horizontally.

\relative c'' {
  \once \override TextScript #'avoid-slur = #'inside
  \once \override TextScript #'outside-staff-priority = ##f
  c2(^\markup \tiny \override #'(baseline-skip . 1) {
    \halign #-4
    \center-column {
      \sharp
      \musicglyph #"scripts.turn"
    }
  }
  d4.) c8
}

[image of music]


Creating simultaneous rehearsal marks

Unlike text scripts, rehearsal marks cannot be stacked at a particular point in a score: only one RehearsalMark object is created. Using an invisible measure and bar line, an extra rehearsal mark can be added, giving the appearance of two marks in the same column.

This method may also prove useful for placing rehearsal marks at both the end of one system and the start of the following system.

{
  \key a \major
  \set Score.markFormatter = #format-mark-box-letters
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark #'outside-staff-priority = #5000
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark #'self-alignment-X = #LEFT
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark #'break-align-symbols = #'(key-signature)
  \mark \markup { \bold { Senza denti } }
  
  % the hidden measure and bar line
  \once \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f
  \time 1/16
  s16 \bar ""
  
  \time 4/4
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark #'self-alignment-X = #LEFT
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark #'break-align-symbols = #'(bar-line)
  \mark \markup { \box \bold Intro }
  d'1
  \mark \default
  d'1
}

[image of music]


Creating text spanners

The \startTextSpan and \stopTextSpan commands allow the creation of text spanners as easily as pedal indications or octavations. Override some properties of the TextSpanner object to modify its output.

\paper { ragged-right = ##f }

\relative c'' {
  \override TextSpanner #'(bound-details left text) = #"bla"
  \override TextSpanner #'(bound-details right text) = #"blu"
  a4 \startTextSpan
  b4 c
  a4 \stopTextSpan
  
  \override TextSpanner #'style = #'line
  \once \override TextSpanner
    #'(bound-details left stencil-align-dir-y) = #CENTER
  a4 \startTextSpan
  b4 c
  a4 \stopTextSpan
  
  \override TextSpanner #'style = #'dashed-line
  \override TextSpanner #'(bound-details left text) =
    \markup { \draw-line #'(0 . 1) }
  \override TextSpanner #'(bound-details right text) =
    \markup { \draw-line #'(0 . -2) }
  \once \override TextSpanner #'(bound-details right padding) = #-2

  a4 \startTextSpan
  b4 c
  a4 \stopTextSpan
  
  \set Staff.middleCPosition = #-13
  \override TextSpanner #'dash-period = #10
  \override TextSpanner #'dash-fraction = #0.5
  \override TextSpanner #'thickness = #10
  a4 \startTextSpan
  b4 c
  a4 \stopTextSpan
}

[image of music]


Custodes

Custodes may be engraved in various styles.

\layout { ragged-right = ##t }

\new Staff \with { \consists "Custos_engraver" } \relative c' {
  \override Staff.Custos #'neutral-position = #4
  
  \override Staff.Custos #'style = #'hufnagel
  c1^"hufnagel" \break
  <d a' f'>1
  
  \override Staff.Custos #'style = #'medicaea
  c1^"medicaea" \break
  <d a' f'>1
  
  \override Staff.Custos #'style = #'vaticana
  c1^"vaticana" \break
  <d a' f'>1
  
  \override Staff.Custos #'style = #'mensural
  c1^"mensural" \break
  <d a' f'>1
}

[image of music]


Customizing fretboard fret diagrams

Fret diagram properties can be set through 'fret-diagram-details. For FretBoard fret diagrams, overrides are applied to the FretBoards.FretBoard object. Like Voice, FretBoards is a bottom level context, therefore can be omitted in property overrides.

\include "predefined-guitar-fretboards.ly"
\storePredefinedDiagram \chordmode { c' }
                        #guitar-tuning
                        #"x;1-1-(;3-2;3-3;3-4;1-1-);"
<<
  \new ChordNames {
    \chordmode { c1 c c d }
  }
  \new FretBoards {
    % Set global properties of fret diagram
    \override FretBoards.FretBoard #'size = #'1.2
    \override FretBoard
      #'(fret-diagram-details finger-code) = #'in-dot
    \override FretBoard
      #'(fret-diagram-details dot-color) = #'white
    \chordmode {
      c
      \once \override FretBoard #'size = #'1.0
      \once \override FretBoard
        #'(fret-diagram-details barre-type) = #'straight
      \once \override FretBoard
        #'(fret-diagram-details dot-color) = #'black
      \once \override FretBoard
        #'(fret-diagram-details finger-code) = #'below-string
      c'
      \once \override FretBoard
        #'(fret-diagram-details barre-type) = #'none
      \once \override FretBoard
        #'(fret-diagram-details number-type) = #'arabic
      \once \override FretBoard
        #'(fret-diagram-details orientation) = #'landscape
      \once \override FretBoard
        #'(fret-diagram-details mute-string) = #"M"
      \once \override FretBoard
        #'(fret-diagram-details label-dir) = #LEFT
      \once \override FretBoard
        #'(fret-diagram-details dot-color) = #'black
      c'
      \once \override FretBoard
        #'(fret-diagram-details finger-code) = #'below-string
      \once \override FretBoard
        #'(fret-diagram-details dot-radius) = #0.35
      \once \override FretBoard
        #'(fret-diagram-details dot-position) = #0.5
      \once \override FretBoard
        #'(fret-diagram-details fret-count) = #3
      d
    }
  }
  \new Voice {
    c'1 c' c' d'
  }
>>

[image of music]


Customizing markup fret diagrams

Fret diagram properties can be set through 'fret-diagram-details. For markup fret diagrams, overrides can be applied to the Voice.TextScript object or directly to the markup.

<<
  \chords { c1 c c d }
  
  \new Voice = "mel" {
    \textLengthOn
    % Set global properties of fret diagram
    \override TextScript #'size = #'1.2
    \override TextScript
      #'(fret-diagram-details finger-code) = #'in-dot
    \override TextScript
      #'(fret-diagram-details dot-color) = #'white

    %% C major for guitar, no barre, using defaults
       % terse style
    c'1^\markup { \fret-diagram-terse #"x;3-3;2-2;o;1-1;o;" }

    %% C major for guitar, barred on third fret
       % verbose style
       % size 1.0
       % roman fret label, finger labels below string, straight barre
    c'1^\markup {
      % standard size
      \override #'(size . 1.0) {
        \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                     (number-type . roman-lower)
                     (finger-code . in-dot)
                     (barre-type . straight))) {
          \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                                   (place-fret 5 3 1)
                                   (place-fret 4 5 2)
                                   (place-fret 3 5 3)
                                   (place-fret 2 5 4)
                                   (place-fret 1 3 1)
                                   (barre 5 1 3))
        }
      }
    }

    %% C major for guitar, barred on third fret
       % verbose style
       % landscape orientation, arabic numbers, M for mute string
       % no barre, fret label down or left, small mute label font
    c'1^\markup {
      \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                   (finger-code . below-string)
                   (number-type . arabic)
                   (label-dir . -1)
                   (mute-string . "M")
                   (orientation . landscape)
                   (barre-type . none)
                   (xo-font-magnification . 0.4)
                   (xo-padding . 0.3))) {
        \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                                 (place-fret 5 3 1)
                                 (place-fret 4 5 2)
                                 (place-fret 3 5 3)
                                 (place-fret 2 5 4)
                                 (place-fret 1 3 1)
                                 (barre 5 1 3))
      }
    }

    %% simple D chord
       % terse style
       % larger dots, centered dots, fewer frets
       % label below string
    d'1^\markup {
      \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                   (finger-code . below-string)
                   (dot-radius . 0.35)
                   (dot-position . 0.5)
                   (fret-count . 3))) {
        \fret-diagram-terse #"x;x;o;2-1;3-2;2-3;"
      }
    }
  }
>>

[image of music]


Display bracket with only one staff in a system

If there is only one staff in one of the staff types ChoirStaff or StaffGroup, the bracket and the starting bar line will not be displayed as standard behavior. This can be changed by overriding the relevant properties.

Note that in contexts such as PianoStaff and GrandStaff where the systems begin with a brace instead of a bracket, another property has to be set, as shown on the second system in the example.

\markup \left-column {
  \score {
    \new StaffGroup <<
      % Must be lower than the actual number of staff lines
      \override StaffGroup.SystemStartBracket #'collapse-height = #1
      \override Score.SystemStartBar #'collapse-height = #1
      \new Staff {
        c'1
      }
    >>
    \layout { }
  }
  \score {
    \new PianoStaff <<
      \override PianoStaff.SystemStartBrace #'collapse-height = #1
      \override Score.SystemStartBar #'collapse-height = #1
      \new Staff {
        c'1
      }
    >>
    \layout { }
  }
}

[image of music]


Dotted harmonics

Artificial harmonics using \harmonic do not show dots. To override this behavior, set the context property harmonicDots.

\relative c''' {
  \time 3/4
  \key f \major
  \set harmonicDots = ##t
  <bes f'\harmonic>2. ~
  <bes f'\harmonic>4. <a e'\harmonic>8( <gis dis'\harmonic> <g d'\harmonic>)
  <fis cis'\harmonic>2.
  <bes f'\harmonic>2.
}

[image of music]


Drawing boxes around grobs

The print-function can be overridden to draw a box around an arbitrary grob.

\relative c'' {
  \override TextScript #'stencil =
    #(make-stencil-boxer 0.1 0.3 ly:text-interface::print)
  c'4^"foo"

  \override Stem #'stencil =
    #(make-stencil-boxer 0.05 0.25 ly:stem::print)
  \override Score.RehearsalMark  #'stencil =
    #(make-stencil-boxer 0.15 0.3 ly:text-interface::print)
  b8
  
  \revert Stem #'stencil
  c4. c4
  \mark "F"
  c1
}

[image of music]


Drawing circles around various objects

The \circle markup command draws circles around various objects, for example fingering indications. For other objects, specific tweaks may be required: this example demonstrates two strategies for rehearsal marks and measure numbers.

\relative c' {
  c1
  \set Score.markFormatter =
    #(lambda (mark context)
             (make-circle-markup (format-mark-numbers mark context)))
  \mark \default
  c2 d^\markup {
    \override #'(thickness . 3) {
      \circle \finger 2
    }
  }
  \override Score.BarNumber #'break-visibility = #all-visible
  \override Score.BarNumber #'stencil =
    #(make-stencil-circler 0.1 0.25 ly:text-interface::print)
}

[image of music]


Fine-tuning pedal brackets

The appearance of pedal brackets may be altered in different ways.

\paper { ragged-right = ##f }
\relative c'' {
  c2\sostenutoOn c
  c2\sostenutoOff c
  \once \override Staff.PianoPedalBracket #'shorten-pair = #'(-7 . -2)
  c2\sostenutoOn c
  c2\sostenutoOff c
  \once \override Staff.PianoPedalBracket #'edge-height = #'(0 . 3)
  c2\sostenutoOn c
  c2\sostenutoOff c
}

[image of music]


Forcing horizontal shift of notes

When the typesetting engine cannot cope, the following syntax can be used to override typesetting decisions. The units of measure used here are staff spaces.

\relative c' <<
  {
    <d g>2 <d g>
  }
  \\
  {
    <b f'>2
    \once \override NoteColumn #'force-hshift = #1.7
    <b f'>2
  }
>>

[image of music]


Fret diagrams explained and developed

This snippet shows many possibilities for obtaining and tweaking fret diagrams.

<<
  \chords {
    a2 a
    c2 c
    d1
  }
  
  \new Voice = "mel" {
    \textLengthOn
    % Set global properties of fret diagram
    \override TextScript #'size = #1.2
    \override TextScript #'fret-diagram-details #'finger-code = #'below-string
    \override TextScript #'fret-diagram-details #'dot-color = #'black
    
    %% A chord for ukelele
    a'2^\markup {
      \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                   (string-count . 4)
                   (dot-color . white)
                   (finger-code . in-dot))) {
        \fret-diagram #"4-2-2;3-1-1;2-o;1-o;"
      }
    }
    
    %% A chord for ukelele, with formatting defined in definition string
    %  1.2 * size, 4 strings, 4 frets, fingerings below string
    %  dot radius .35 of fret spacing, dot position 0.55 of fret spacing
    a'2^\markup {
      \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                   (dot-color . white)
                   (open-string . "o"))) {
        \fret-diagram #"s:1.2;w:4;h:3;f:2;d:0.35;p:0.55;4-2-2;3-1-1;2-o;1-o;"
      }
    }
    
    %% C major for guitar, barred on third fret
    %  verbose style
    %  roman fret label, finger labels below string, straight barre
    c'2^\markup {
      % 110% of default size
      \override #'(size . 1.1) {
        \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                     (number-type . roman-lower)
                     (finger-code . below-string)
                     (barre-type . straight))) {
          \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                                   (place-fret 5 3 1)
                                   (place-fret 4 5 2)
                                   (place-fret 3 5 3)
                                   (place-fret 2 5 4)
                                   (place-fret 1 3 1)
                                   (barre 5 1 3))
        }
      }
    }
    
    %% C major for guitar, barred on third fret
    %  verbose style
    c'2^\markup {
      % 110% of default size
      \override #'(size . 1.1) {
        \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                     (number-type . arabic)
                     (dot-label-font-mag . 0.9)
                     (finger-code . in-dot)
                     (fret-label-font-mag . 0.6)
                     (fret-label-vertical-offset . 0)
                     (label-dir . -1)
                     (mute-string . "M")
                     (orientation . landscape)
                     (xo-font-magnification . 0.4)
                     (xo-padding . 0.3))) {
          \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                                   (place-fret 5 3 1)
                                   (place-fret 4 5 2)
                                   (place-fret 3 5 3)
                                   (place-fret 2 5 4)
                                   (place-fret 1 3 1)
                                   (barre 5 1 3))
        }
      }
    }
    
    %% simple D chord
    d'1^\markup {
      \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                   (finger-code . below-string)
                   (dot-radius . 0.35)
                   (dot-position . 0.5)
                   (fret-count . 3))) {
        \fret-diagram-terse #"x;x;o;2-1;3-2;2-3;"
      }
    }
  }
>>

[image of music]


Horizontally aligning custom dynamics (e.g. "sempre pp", "piu f", "subito p")

Some dynamic expressions involve additional text, like "sempre pp". Since lilypond aligns all dynamics centered on the note, the \pp would be displayed way after the note it applies to.

To correctly align the "sempre \pp" horizontally, so that it is aligned as if it were only the \pp, there are several approaches:

* Simply use \once\override DynamicText #'X-offset = #-9.2 before the note with the dynamics to manually shift it to the correct position. Drawback: This has to be done manually each time you use that dynamic markup... * Add some padding (#:hspace 7.1) into the definition of your custom dynamic mark, so that after lilypond center-aligns it, it is already correctly aligned. Drawback: The padding really takes up that space and does not allow any other markup or dynamics to be shown in that position.

* Shift the dynamic script \once\override ... #'X-offset = ... Drawback: \once\override is needed for every invocation!

* Set the dimensions of the additional text to 0 (using #:with-dimensions '(0 . 0) '(0 . 0)). Drawback: To lilypond "sempre" has no extent, so it might put other stuff there and create collisions (which are not detected by the collision dection!). Also, there seems to be some spacing, so it’s not exactly the same alignment as without the additional text

* Add an explicit shifting directly inside the scheme function for the dynamic-script.

* Set an explicit alignment inside the dynamic-script. By default, this won’t have any effect, only if one sets X-offset! Drawback: One needs to set DynamicText #'X-offset, which will apply to all dynamic texts! Also, it is aligned at the right edge of the additional text, not at the center of pp.

\header { title = "Horizontally aligning custom dynamics" }
\layout { ragged-right = ##t }

% Solution 1: Using a simple markup with a particular halign value
% Drawback: It's a markup, not a dynamic command, so \dynamicDown etc. will have no effect
semppMarkup = \markup { \halign #1.4 \italic "sempre" \dynamic "pp" }

% Solution 2: Using a dynamic script and shifting with \once\override ... #'X-offset = ..
% Drawback: \once\override needed for every invocation
semppK = #(make-dynamic-script (markup #:line( #:normal-text #:italic "sempre" #:dynamic "pp")))

% Solution 3: Padding the dynamic script so the center-alignment puts it to the correct position
% Drawback: the padding really reserves the space, nothing else can be there
semppT = #(
  make-dynamic-script (
    markup #:line (
      #:normal-text #:italic "sempre" #:dynamic "pp" #:hspace 7.1
    )
  )
)

% Solution 4: Dynamic, setting the dimensions of the additional text to 0
% Drawback: To lilypond "sempre" has no extent, so it might put other stuff there => collisions
% Drawback: Also, there seems to be some spacing, so it's not exactly the 
%           same alignment as without the additional text
semppM = #(make-dynamic-script (markup #:line( #:with-dimensions '(0 . 0) '(0 . 0) #:right-align #:normal-text #:italic "sempre" #:dynamic "pp")))

% Solution 5: Dynamic with explicit shifting inside the scheme function
semppG = #(make-dynamic-script
  (markup
    #:hspace 0 #:translate (cons -18.85 0 )
    #:line( #:normal-text #:italic "sempre" #:dynamic "pp"))
)

% Solution 6: Dynamic with explicit alignment. This has only effect, if one sets X-offset!
% Drawback: One needs to set DynamicText #'X-offset!
% Drawback: Aligned at the right edge of the additional text, not at the center of pp
semppMII = #(make-dynamic-script (markup #:line(#:right-align #:normal-text #:italic "sempre" #:dynamic "pp")))


\context StaffGroup <<
  \context Staff="s" << \set Staff.instrumentName = "Normal"
       \relative c'' { \key es \major c4\pp c\p c c | c\ff c c\pp c } 
  >>
  \context Staff="sMarkup" << \set Staff.instrumentName = \markup\column{"Normal" "Markup"}
       \relative c'' { \key es \major c4-\semppMarkup c\p c c | c\ff c c-\semppMarkup c} 
  >>
  \context Staff="sK" << \set Staff.instrumentName = \markup\column{"Explicit" "shifting"}
       \relative c'' { \key es \major 
           \once \override DynamicText #'X-offset = #-9.2 c4\semppK c\p c c | 
           c\ff c \once \override DynamicText #'X-offset = #-9.2  c\semppK c } 
  >>
  \context Staff="sT" << \set Staff.instrumentName = \markup\column{"Right" "padding"}
       \relative c'' { \key es \major c4\semppT c\p c c | c\ff c c\semppT c } 
  >>
  \context Staff="sM" << \set Staff.instrumentName = \markup\column{"Setting" "dimension" "to zero"}
       \relative c'' { \key es \major c4\semppM c\p c c | c\ff c c\semppM c } 
  >>
  \context Staff="sG" << \set Staff.instrumentName = \markup\column{"Shifting" "inside" "dynamics"}
       \relative c'' { \key es \major c4\semppG c\p c c | c\ff c c\semppG c} 
  >>
  \context Staff="sMII" << \set Staff.instrumentName = \markup\column{"Alignment" "inside" "dynamics"}
    \relative c'' { \key es \major 
      \override DynamicText #'X-offset = #0  % Setting to ##f (false) gives the same resul
      c4\semppMII c\p c c | c\ff c c\semppMII c } 
    >>
>>

[image of music]


How to change fret diagram position

If you want to move the position of a fret diagram, for example, to avoid collision, or to place it between two notes, you have various possibilities:

1) modify #’padding or #’extra-offset values (as shown in the first snippet)

2) you can add an invisible voice and attach the fret diagrams to the invisible notes in that voice (as shown in the second example).

If you need to move the fret according with a rythmic position inside the bar (in the example, the third beat of the measure) the second example is better, because the fret is aligned with the third beat itself.

harmonies = \chordmode
{
  a8:13
% THE FOLLOWING IS THE COMMAND TO MOVE THE CHORD NAME
  \once \override ChordNames.ChordName #'extra-offset = #'(10 . 0)
  b8:13 s2.
% THIS LINE IS THE SECOND METHOD
    s4 s4  b4:13
}

\score
{
  <<
    \context ChordNames \harmonies
    \context Staff
    {a8^\markup { \fret-diagram  #"6-x;5-0;4-2;3-0;2-0;1-2;"  }
% THE FOLLOWING IS THE COMMAND TO MOVE THE FRET DIAGRAM
     \once \override TextScript #'extra-offset = #'(10 . 0)
     b4.~^\markup { \fret-diagram  #"6-x;5-2;4-4;3-2;2-2;1-4;"  } b4. a8\break
% HERE IS THE SECOND METHOD
     <<
       { a8 b4.~ b4. a8} 
       { s4 s4 s4^\markup { \fret-diagram  #"6-x;5-2;4-4;3-2;2-2;1-4;"  }
       }
     >>
   }
  >>
}


[image of music]


Inserting a caesura

Caesura marks can be created by overriding the 'text property of the BreathingSign object. A curved caesura mark is also available.

\relative c'' {
  \override BreathingSign #'text = \markup {
    \musicglyph #"scripts.caesura.straight"
  }
  c8 e4. \breathe g8. e16 c4

  \override BreathingSign #'text = \markup {
    \musicglyph #"scripts.caesura.curved"
  }
  g8 e'4. \breathe g8. e16 c4
}

[image of music]


Making an object invisible with the transparent property

Setting the 'transparent property will cause an object to be printed in "invisible ink": the object is not printed, but all its other behavior is retained. The object still takes up space, it takes part in collisions, and slurs, ties and beams can be attached to it.

This snippet demonstrates how to connect different voices using ties. Normally, ties only connect two notes in the same voice. By introducing a tie in a different voice, and blanking the first up-stem in that voice, the tie appears to cross voices. To prevent the blanked stem’s flag from interfering with tie positioning, the stem is extended.

\relative c'' {
  \time 2/4
  <<
    {
      \once \override Stem #'transparent = ##t
      \once \override Stem #'length = #8
      b8 ~ b\noBeam
      \once \override Stem #'transparent = ##t
      \once \override Stem #'length = #8
      g8 ~ g\noBeam
    }
    \\
    {
      b8 g g e
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Manually controlling beam positions

Beam positions may be controlled manually, by overriding the positions setting of the Beam grob.

\relative c' {
  \time 2/4
  % from upper staff-line (position 2) to center (position 0)
  \override Beam #'positions = #'(2 . 0)
  c8 c
  % from center to one above center (position 1)
  \override Beam #'positions = #'(0 . 1)
  c8 c
}

[image of music]


Mensurstriche layout (bar lines between the staves)

The mensurstriche-layout where the bar lines do not show on the staves but between staves can be achieved with a StaffGroup instead of a ChoirStaff. The bar line on staves is blanked out by setting the transparent property.

global = {
  \override Staff.BarLine #'transparent = ##t
  s1 s
  % the final bar line is not interrupted
  \revert Staff.BarLine #'transparent
  \bar "|."
}
\new StaffGroup \relative c'' {
  <<
    \new Staff { << \global { c1 c } >> }
    \new Staff { << \global { c c } >> }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Nesting staves

The property systemStartDelimiterHierarchy can be used to make more complex nested staff groups. The command \set StaffGroup.systemStartDelimiterHierarchy takes an alphabetical list of the number of staves produced. Before each staff a system start delimiter can be given. It has to be enclosed in brackets and takes as much staves as the brackets enclose. Elements in the list can be omitted, but the first bracket takes always the complete number of staves. The possibilities are SystemStartBar, SystemStartBracket, SystemStartBrace, and SystemStartSquare.

\new StaffGroup
\relative c'' <<
  \set StaffGroup.systemStartDelimiterHierarchy
    = #'(SystemStartSquare (SystemStartBrace (SystemStartBracket a
                             (SystemStartSquare b)  ) c ) d)
  \new Staff { c1 }
  \new Staff { c1 }
  \new Staff { c1 }
  \new Staff { c1 }
  \new Staff { c1 }
>>

[image of music]


Percent repeat count visibility

Percent repeat counters can be shown at regular intervals by setting the context property repeatCountVisibility.

\relative c'' {
  \set countPercentRepeats = ##t
  \set repeatCountVisibility = #(every-nth-repeat-count-visible 5)
  \repeat percent 10 { c1 } \break
  \set repeatCountVisibility = #(every-nth-repeat-count-visible 2)
  \repeat percent 6 { c1 d1 }
}

[image of music]


Positioning multi-measure rests

Unlike ordinary rests, there is no predefined command to change the staff position of a multi-measure rest symbol of either form by attaching it to a note. However, in polyphonic music multi-measure rests in odd-numbered and even-numbered voices are vertically separated. The positioning of multi-measure rests can be controlled as follows:

\relative c'' {
  % Multi-measure rests by default are set under the second line
  R1
  % They can be moved with an override
  \override MultiMeasureRest #'staff-position = #-2
  R1
  % A value of 0 is the default position;
  % the following trick moves the rest to the center line
  \override MultiMeasureRest #'staff-position = #-0.01
  R1
  % Multi-measure rests in odd-numbered voices are under the top line
  << { R1 } \\ { a1 } >>
  % Multi-measure rests in even-numbered voices are under the bottom line
  << { c1 } \\ { R1 } >>
  % They remain separated even in empty measures
  << { R1 } \\ { R1 } >>
  % This brings them together even though there are two voices
  \compressFullBarRests
  <<
    \revert MultiMeasureRest #'staff-position
    { R1*3 }
    \\
    \revert MultiMeasureRest #'staff-position
    { R1*3 }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Positioning text markups inside slurs

Text markups need to have the outside-staff-priority property set to false in order to be printed inside slurs.

\relative c'' {
  \override TextScript #'avoid-slur = #'inside
  \override TextScript #'outside-staff-priority = ##f
  c2(^\markup { \halign #-10 \natural } d4.) c8
}

[image of music]


Printing a repeat sign at the beginning of a piece

A |: bar line can be printed at the beginning of a piece, by overriding the relevant property:

\relative c'' {
  \once \override Score.BreakAlignment #'break-align-orders =
        #(make-vector 3 '(instrument-name
                          left-edge
                          ambitus
                          span-bar
                          breathing-sign
                          clef
                          key-signature
                          time-signature
                          staff-bar
                          custos
                          span-bar))
  \bar "|:"
  c1
  d1
  d4 e f g
}

[image of music]


Printing metronome and rehearsal marks below the staff

By default, metronome and rehearsal marks are printed above the staff. To place them below the staff simply set the direction property of MetronomeMark or RehearsalMark appropriately.

\layout { ragged-right = ##f }

{
  % Metronome marks below the staff 
  \override Score.MetronomeMark #'direction = #DOWN
  \tempo 8. = 120
  c''1

  % Rehearsal marks below the staff
  \override Score.RehearsalMark #'direction = #DOWN
  \mark \default
  c''1
}

[image of music]


Proportional strict notespacing

If strict-note-spacing is set spacing of notes is not influenced by bars or clefs within a system. Rather, they are placed just before the note that occurs at the same time. This may cause collisions.

\paper {
  ragged-right = ##t
}

\relative c'' <<
  \override Score.SpacingSpanner #'strict-note-spacing = ##t 
  \set Score.proportionalNotationDuration = #(ly:make-moment 1 16)
  \new Staff {
    c8[ c \clef alto c c \grace { d16 } c8 c] c4
    c2 \grace { c16[ c16] } c2
  }
  \new Staff {
    c2 \times 2/3 { c8 \clef bass cis,, c } c4
    c1
  }
>>

[image of music]


Removing the first empty line

The first empty staff can also be removed from the score by setting the VerticalAxisGroup property remove-first. This can be done globally inside the \layout block, or locally inside the specific staff that should be removed. In the latter case, you have to specify the context (Staff applies only to the current staff) in front of the property.

The lower staff of the second staff group is not removed, because the setting applies only to the specific staff inside of which it is written.

\layout {
  \context { 
    \RemoveEmptyStaffContext 
    % To use the setting globally, uncomment the following line:
    % \override VerticalAxisGroup #'remove-first = ##t
  }
}
\new StaffGroup <<
  \new Staff \relative c' {
    e4 f g a \break
    c1
  }
  \new Staff {
    % To use the setting globally, comment this line,
    % uncomment the line in the \layout block above
    \override Staff.VerticalAxisGroup #'remove-first = ##t
    R1 \break
    R
  }
>>
\new StaffGroup <<
  \new Staff \relative c' {
    e4 f g a \break
    c1
  }
  \new Staff {
    R1 \break
    R
  }
>>

[image of music]


Rest styles

Rests may be used in various styles.

\layout {
  indent = 0.0
  \context {
    \Staff
    \remove "Time_signature_engraver"
  }
}

\new Staff \relative c {
  \cadenzaOn
  \override Staff.Rest #'style = #'mensural
  r\maxima^\markup \typewriter { mensural }
  r\longa r\breve r1 r2 r4 r8 r16 s32 s64 s128 s128
  \bar ""
  
  \override Staff.Rest #'style = #'neomensural
  r\maxima^\markup \typewriter { neomensural }
  r\longa r\breve r1 r2 r4 r8 r16 s32 s64 s128 s128
  \bar ""
  
  \override Staff.Rest #'style = #'classical
  r\maxima^\markup \typewriter { classical }
  r\longa r\breve r1 r2 r4 r8 r16 r32 r64 r128 s128
  \bar ""
  
  \override Staff.Rest  #'style = #'default
  r\maxima^\markup \typewriter { default }
  r\longa r\breve r1 r2 r4 r8 r16 r32 r64 r128 s128
}

[image of music]


Rhythmic slashes

In "simple" lead-sheets, sometimes no actual notes are written, instead only "rhythmic patterns" and chords above the measures are notated giving the structure of a song. Such a feature is for example useful while creating/transcribing the structure of a song and also when sharing lead sheets with guitarists or jazz musicians. The standard support for this using \repeat percent is unsuitable here since the first beat has to be an ordinary note or rest. This example shows two solutions to this problem, by redefining ordinary rests to be printed as slashes. (If the duration of each beat is not a quarter note, replace the r4 in the definitions with a rest of the appropriate duration).

% Macro to print single slash
rs = {
  \once \override Rest #'stencil = #ly:percent-repeat-item-interface::beat-slash
  \once \override Rest #'thickness = #0.48
  \once \override Rest #'slope = #1.7
  r4
}

% Function to print a specified number of slashes
comp = #(define-music-function (parser location count) ( integer?)
  #{
    \override Rest #'stencil = #ly:percent-repeat-item-interface::beat-slash
    \override Rest #'thickness = #0.48
    \override Rest #'slope = #1.7
    \repeat unfold $count { r4 }
    \revert Rest #'stencil
  #}
)

\score {
  \relative c' {
    c4 d e f |
    \rs \rs \rs \rs |
    \comp #4 |
  }
}

[image of music]


Suppressing warnings for clashing note columns

If notes from two voices with stems in the same direction are placed at the same position, and both voices have no shift or the same shift specified, the error message "warning: ignoring too many clashing note columns" will appear when compiling the LilyPond file. This message can be suppressed by setting the 'ignore-collision property of the NoteColumn object to #t.

ignore = \override NoteColumn #'ignore-collision = ##t

\relative c' {
  <<
    \ignore
    { \stemDown f2 g }
    \\
    { c2 c, }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Time signature in parentheses

The time signature can be enclosed within parentheses.

\relative c'' {
  \override Staff.TimeSignature #'stencil = #(lambda (grob)
    (bracketify-stencil (ly:time-signature::print grob) Y 0.1 0.2 0.1))
  \time 2/4
  a4 b8 c
}

[image of music]


Transcription of Ancient music with incipit

As a workaround to get real incipits which are independent from the main score these are included as a markup into the field normally used for the instrument name. As for now lyrics can only be added as a direct markup. It doesn’t unfortunately conform with the spacing of the main lyrics.

global = {
  \set Score.skipBars = ##t
  \key g \major
  \time 4/4
  
  %make the staff lines invisible on staves
  \override Staff.BarLine #'transparent = ##t
  \skip 1*8 % the actual music

  % let finis bar go through all staves
  \override Staff.BarLine #'transparent = ##f

  % finis bar
  \bar "|."
}

  
discantusNotes = {
  \transpose c' c'' {
    \clef "treble"
    d'2. d'4 |
    b e' d'2 |
    c'4 e'4.( d'8 c' b |
    a4) b a2 |
    b4.( c'8 d'4) c'4 |
    \once \override NoteHead #'transparent = ##t c'1 |
    b\breve |
  }
}

discantusLyrics = \lyricmode {
  Ju -- bi -- |
  la -- te De -- |
  o, om --
  nis ter -- |
  ra, __ om- |
  "..." |
  -us. |
}

altusNotes = {
  \transpose c' c'' {
    \clef "treble"
    r2 g2. e4 fis g | % two bars
    a2 g4 e |
    fis g4.( fis16 e fis4) |
    g1 |
    \once \override NoteHead #'transparent = ##t g1 |
    g\breve |
  }
}

altusLyrics = \lyricmode {
  Ju -- bi -- la -- te | % two bars
  De -- o, om -- |
  nis ter -- ra, |
  "..." |
  -us. |
}

tenorNotes = {
  \transpose c' c' {
    \clef "treble_8"
    R1 |
    R1 |
    R1 |
    r2 d'2. d'4 b e' | % two bars
    \once \override NoteHead #'transparent = ##t e'1 |
    d'\breve |
  }
}

tenorLyrics = \lyricmode {
  Ju -- bi -- la -- te | % two bars
  "..." |
  -us. 
}

bassusNotes = {
  \transpose c' c' {
    \clef "bass"
    R1 |
    R1 |
    R1 |
    R1 |
    g2. e4 |
    \once \override NoteHead #'transparent = ##t e1 |
    g\breve |
  }
}

bassusLyrics = \lyricmode {
  Ju -- bi- |
  "..." |
  -us. 
}

incipitDiscantus = \markup{
	\score{
		{
		\set Staff.instrumentName="Discantus "
		\override NoteHead   #'style = #'neomensural
		\override Rest #'style = #'neomensural
		\override Staff.TimeSignature #'style = #'neomensural
		\cadenzaOn 
		\clef "neomensural-c1"
		\key f \major
		\time 2/2
	  	c''1._"IV-" s2  %two bars
	  	\skip 1*8 % eight bars
    	}
	\layout {
		\context {\Voice
			\remove Ligature_bracket_engraver
			\consists Mensural_ligature_engraver
		}
		line-width=4.5\cm 
	}
	}
}

incipitAltus = \markup{
	\score{
		{ 
		\set Staff.instrumentName="Altus "
		\override NoteHead   #'style = #'neomensural
		\override Rest #'style = #'neomensural
		\override Staff.TimeSignature #'style = #'neomensural
		\cadenzaOn 
		\clef "neomensural-c3"
		\key f \major
		\time 2/2
	  	r1        % one bar
        f'1._"IV-" s2   % two bars
        \skip 1*7 % seven bars
		}
	\layout {
		\context {\Voice
			\remove Ligature_bracket_engraver
			\consists Mensural_ligature_engraver
		}
		line-width=4.5\cm 
	}
	}
}

incipitTenor = \markup{
    \score{ {
    \set Staff.instrumentName = "Tenor  "
    \override NoteHead   #'style = #'neomensural
	\override Rest #'style = #'neomensural
	\override Staff.TimeSignature #'style = #'neomensural
	\cadenzaOn 
	\clef "neomensural-c4"
	\key f \major
	\time 2/2
    r\longa   % four bars
    r\breve   % two bars
    r1        % one bar
    c'1._"IV-" s2   % two bars
    \skip 1   % one bar
    }
    \layout {
		\context {\Voice
			\remove Ligature_bracket_engraver
			\consists Mensural_ligature_engraver
		}
		line-width=4.5\cm 
}
}
}

incipitBassus = \markup{
    \score{ {
    \set Staff.instrumentName = "Bassus  "
    \override NoteHead   #'style = #'neomensural
	\override Rest #'style = #'neomensural
	\override Staff.TimeSignature #'style = #'neomensural
	\cadenzaOn 
	\clef "bass"
	\key f \major
	\time 2/2
    % incipit
    r\maxima  % eight bars
    f1._"IV-" s2    % two bars
    }
    \layout {
		\context {\Voice
			\remove Ligature_bracket_engraver
			\consists Mensural_ligature_engraver
		}
		line-width=4.5\cm 
            }
     }
}

%StaffGroup is used instead of ChoirStaff to get bar lines between systems
\score {
  <<
  \new StaffGroup = choirStaff <<
    \new Voice =
      "discantusNotes" << \global 
      \set Staff.instrumentName=\incipitDiscantus   
      \discantusNotes >>
    \new Lyrics =
      "discantusLyrics" \lyricsto discantusNotes { \discantusLyrics }
      
    \new Voice =
      "altusNotes" << \global 
      \set Staff.instrumentName=\incipitAltus 
      \altusNotes >>
    \new Lyrics =
      "altusLyrics" \lyricsto altusNotes { \altusLyrics }
     
    \new Voice =
      "tenorNotes" << \global 
      \set Staff.instrumentName=\incipitTenor 
      \tenorNotes >>
    \new Lyrics =
      "tenorLyrics" \lyricsto tenorNotes { \tenorLyrics }
     
    \new Voice =
      "bassusNotes" << \global 
      \set Staff.instrumentName=\incipitBassus
      \bassusNotes >>
      >>
    \new Lyrics =
      "bassusLyrics" \lyricsto bassusNotes { \bassusLyrics } 
    %Keep the bass lyrics outside of the staff group to avoid bar lines
    %between the lyrics.
  >>
  
  \layout {
    \context {
      \Score

      % no bars in staves
      \override BarLine #'transparent = ##t
    }
    % the next three instructions keep the lyrics between the barlines
	\context { \Lyrics 
	   \consists "Bar_engraver" 
	   \override BarLine #'transparent = ##t } 
	\context { \StaffGroup \consists "Separating_line_group_engraver" }
    \context {
      \Voice

      % no slurs
      \override Slur #'transparent = ##t

      % Comment in the below "\remove" command to allow line
      % breaking also at those barlines where a note overlaps
      % into the next bar.  The command is commented out in this
      % short example score, but especially for large scores, you
      % will typically yield better line breaking and thus improve
      % overall spacing if you comment in the following command.
      %\remove "Forbid_line_break_engraver"
    }
    	indent=5\cm
  }
}

[image of music]


Tweaking clef properties

The command \clef "treble_8" is equivalent to setting clefGlyph, clefPosition (which controls the vertical position of the clef), middleCPosition and clefOctavation. A clef is printed when any of the properties except middleCPosition are changed.

Note that changing the glyph, the position of the clef, or the octavation does not in itself change the position of subsequent notes on the staff: the position of middle C must also be specified to do this. The positional parameters are relative to the staff center line, positive numbers displacing upwards, counting one for each line and space. The clefOctavation value would normally be set to 7, -7, 15 or -15, but other values are valid.

When a clef change takes place at a line break the new clef symbol is printed at both the end of the previous line and the beginning of the new line by default. If the warning clef at the end of the previous line is not required it can be suppressed by setting the Staff property explicitClefVisibility to the value end-of-line-invisible. The default behavior can be recovered with \unset Staff.explicitClefVisibility.

The following examples show the possibilities when setting these properties manually. On the first line, the manual changes preserve the standard relative positioning of clefs and notes, whereas on the second line, they do not.

\layout { ragged-right = ##t }

{
  % The default treble clef
  c'1
  % The standard bass clef
  \set Staff.clefGlyph = #"clefs.F"
  \set Staff.clefPosition = #2
  \set Staff.middleCPosition = #6
  c'1
  % The baritone clef
  \set Staff.clefGlyph = #"clefs.C"
  \set Staff.clefPosition = #4
  \set Staff.middleCPosition = #4
  c'1
  % The standard choral tenor clef
  \set Staff.clefGlyph = #"clefs.G"
  \set Staff.clefPosition = #-2
  \set Staff.clefOctavation = #-7
  \set Staff.middleCPosition = #1
  c'1
  % A non-standard clef
  \set Staff.clefPosition = #0
  \set Staff.clefOctavation = #0
  \set Staff.middleCPosition = #-4
  c'1 \break

  % The following clef changes do not preserve
  % the normal relationship between notes and clefs:

  \set Staff.clefGlyph = #"clefs.F"
  \set Staff.clefPosition = #2
  c'1
  \set Staff.clefGlyph = #"clefs.G"
  c'1
  \set Staff.clefGlyph = #"clefs.C"
  c'1
  \set Staff.clefOctavation = #7
  c'1
  \set Staff.clefOctavation = #0
  \set Staff.clefPosition = #0
  c'1
  
  % Return to the normal clef:

  \set Staff.middleCPosition = #0
  c'1
}

[image of music]


Using PostScript to generate special note head shapes

When a note head with a special shape cannot easily be generated with graphic markup, PostScript code can be used to generate the shape. This example shows how a parallelogram-shaped note head is generated.

parallelogram =
  #(ly:make-stencil (list 'embedded-ps
    "gsave
      currentpoint translate
      newpath
      0 0.25 moveto
      1.3125 0.75 lineto
      1.3125 -0.25 lineto
      0 -0.75 lineto
      closepath
      fill
      grestore" )
    (cons 0 1.3125)
    (cons 0 0))

myNoteHeads = \override NoteHead #'stencil = \parallelogram
normalNoteHeads = \revert NoteHead #'stencil

\relative c'' {
  \myNoteHeads
  g4 d'
  \normalNoteHeads
  <f, \tweak #'stencil \parallelogram b e>4 d
}

[image of music]


Using the \tweak command to tweak individual grobs

With the \tweak command, every grob can be tuned directly. Here are some examples of available tweaks.

\relative c' {
  \time 2/4
  \set fingeringOrientations = #'(right)
  <
    \tweak #'font-size #3 c
    \tweak #'color #red d-\tweak #'font-size #8 -4
    \tweak #'style #'cross g
    \tweak #'duration-log #2 a
  >2
}

[image of music]


Vertically aligned dynamics and textscripts

By setting the 'Y-extent property to a suitable value, all DynamicLineSpanner objects (hairpins and dynamic texts) can be aligned to a common reference point, regardless of their actual extent. This way, every element will be vertically aligned, thus producing a more pleasing output.

The same idea is used to align the text scripts along their baseline.

music = \relative c'' {
  c2\p^\markup { gorgeous } c\f^\markup { fantastic }
  c4\p c\f\> c c\!\p
}

{
  \music \break
  \override DynamicLineSpanner #'staff-padding = #2.0
  \override DynamicLineSpanner #'Y-extent = #'(-1.5 . 1.5)
  \override TextScript #'Y-extent = #'(-1.5 . 1.5)
  \music
}

[image of music]


Vertically aligning ossias and lyrics

This snippet demonstrates the use of the context properties alignBelowContext and alignAboveContext to control the positioning of lyrics and ossias.

\paper {
  ragged-right = ##t
}

\relative c' <<
  \new Staff = "1" { c4 c s2 }
  \new Staff = "2" { c4 c s2 }
  \new Staff = "3" { c4 c s2 }
  { \skip 2
    <<
      \lyrics {
        \set alignBelowContext = #"1"
        lyrics4 below
      }
      \new Staff \with {
        alignAboveContext = #"3"
        fontSize = #-2
        \override StaffSymbol #'staff-space = #(magstep -2)
        \remove "Time_signature_engraver"
      } {
        \times 4/6 {
          \override TextScript #'padding = #3
          c8[^"ossia above" d e d e f]
        }
      }
    >>
  }
>>

[image of music]


Snippets List