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2. Invoking m4

The format of the m4 command is:

 
m4 [option…] [file…]

All options begin with `-', or if long option names are used, with `--'. A long option name need not be written completely, any unambiguous prefix is sufficient. POSIX requires m4 to recognize arguments intermixed with files, even when POSIXLY_CORRECT is set in the environment. Most options take effect at startup regardless of their position, but some are documented below as taking effect after any files that occurred earlier in the command line. The argument `--' is a marker to denote the end of options.

With short options, options that do not take arguments may be combined into a single command line argument with subsequent options, options with mandatory arguments may be provided either as a single command line argument or as two arguments, and options with optional arguments must be provided as a single argument. In other words, m4 -QPDfoo -d a -df is equivalent to m4 -Q -P -D foo -d -df -- ./a, although the latter form is considered canonical.

With long options, options with mandatory arguments may be provided with an equal sign (`=') in a single argument, or as two arguments, and options with optional arguments must be provided as a single argument. In other words, m4 --def foo --debug a is equivalent to m4 --define=foo --debug= -- ./a, although the latter form is considered canonical (not to mention more robust, in case a future version of m4 introduces an option named `--default').

m4 understands the following options, grouped by functionality.


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2.1 Command line options for operation modes

Several options control the overall operation of m4:

--help

Print a help summary on standard output, then immediately exit m4 without reading any input files or performing any other actions.

--version

Print the version number of the program on standard output, then immediately exit m4 without reading any input files or performing any other actions.

-E
--fatal-warnings

Controls the effect of warnings. If unspecified, then execution continues and exit status is unaffected when a warning is printed. If specified exactly once, warnings become fatal; when one is issued, execution continues, but the exit status will be non-zero. If specified multiple times, then execution halts with non-zero status the first time a warning is issued. The introduction of behavior levels is new to M4 1.4.9; for behavior consistent with earlier versions, you should specify `-E' twice.

-i
--interactive
-e

Makes this invocation of m4 interactive. This means that all output will be unbuffered, and interrupts will be ignored. The spelling `-e' exists for compatibility with other m4 implementations, and issues a warning because it may be withdrawn in a future version of GNU M4.

-P
--prefix-builtins

Internally modify all builtin macro names so they all start with the prefix `m4_'. For example, using this option, one should write `m4_define' instead of `define', and `m4___file__' instead of `__file__'. This option has no effect if `-R' is also specified.

-Q
--quiet
--silent

Suppress warnings, such as missing or superfluous arguments in macro calls, or treating the empty string as zero.

--warn-macro-sequence[=regexp]

Issue a warning if the regular expression regexp has a non-empty match in any macro definition (either by define or pushdef). Empty matches are ignored; therefore, supplying the empty string as regexp disables any warning. If the optional regexp is not supplied, then the default regular expression is `\$\({[^}]*}\|[0-9][0-9]+\)' (a literal `$' followed by multiple digits or by an open brace), since these sequences will change semantics in the default operation of GNU M4 2.0 (due to a change in how more than 9 arguments in a macro definition will be handled, see section Arguments to macros). Providing an alternate regular expression can provide a useful reverse lookup feature of finding where a macro is defined to have a given definition.

-W regexp
--word-regexp=regexp

Use regexp as an alternative syntax for macro names. This experimental option will not be present in all GNU m4 implementations (see section Changing the lexical structure of words).


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2.2 Command line options for preprocessor features

Several options allow m4 to behave more like a preprocessor. Macro definitions and deletions can be made on the command line, the search path can be altered, and the output file can track where the input came from. These features occur with the following options:

-D name[=value]
--define=name[=value]

This enters name into the symbol table. If `=value' is missing, the value is taken to be the empty string. The value can be any string, and the macro can be defined to take arguments, just as if it was defined from within the input. This option may be given more than once; order with respect to file names is significant, and redefining the same name loses the previous value.

-I directory
--include=directory

Make m4 search directory for included files that are not found in the current working directory. See section Searching for include files, for more details. This option may be given more than once.

-s
--synclines

Generate synchronization lines, for use by the C preprocessor or other similar tools. Order is significant with respect to file names. This option is useful, for example, when m4 is used as a front end to a compiler. Source file name and line number information is conveyed by directives of the form `#line linenum "file"', which are inserted as needed into the middle of the output. Such directives mean that the following line originated or was expanded from the contents of input file file at line linenum. The `"file"' part is often omitted when the file name did not change from the previous directive.

Synchronization directives are always given on complete lines by themselves. When a synchronization discrepancy occurs in the middle of an output line, the associated synchronization directive is delayed until the next newline that does not occur in the middle of a quoted string or comment.

 
define(`twoline', `1
2')
⇒#line 2 "stdin"
⇒
changecom(`/*', `*/')
⇒
define(`comment', `/*1
2*/')
⇒#line 5
⇒
dnl no line
hello
⇒#line 7
⇒hello
twoline
⇒1
⇒#line 8
⇒2
comment
⇒/*1
⇒2*/
one comment `two
three'
⇒#line 10
⇒one /*1
⇒2*/ two
⇒three
goodbye
⇒#line 12
⇒goodbye
-U name
--undefine=name

This deletes any predefined meaning name might have. Obviously, only predefined macros can be deleted in this way. This option may be given more than once; undefining a name that does not have a definition is silently ignored. Order is significant with respect to file names.


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2.3 Command line options for limits control

There are some limits within m4 that can be tuned. For compatibility, m4 also accepts some options that control limits in other implementations, but which are automatically unbounded (limited only by your hardware and operating system constraints) in GNU m4.

-g
--gnu

Enable all the extensions in this implementation. In this release of M4, this option is always on by default; it is currently only useful when overriding a prior use of `--traditional'. However, having GNU behavior as default makes it impossible to write a strictly POSIX-compliant client that avoids all incompatible GNU M4 extensions, since such a client would have to use the non-POSIX command-line option to force full POSIX behavior. Thus, a future version of M4 will be changed to implicitly use the option `--traditional' if the environment variable POSIXLY_CORRECT is set. Projects that intentionally use GNU extensions should consider using `--gnu' to state their intentions, so that the project will not mysteriously break if the user upgrades to a newer M4 and has POSIXLY_CORRECT set in their environment.

-G
--traditional

Suppress all the extensions made in this implementation, compared to the System V version. See section Compatibility with other versions of m4, for a list of these.

-H num
--hashsize=num

Make the internal hash table for symbol lookup be num entries big. For better performance, the number should be prime, but this is not checked. The default is 509 entries. It should not be necessary to increase this value, unless you define an excessive number of macros.

-L num
--nesting-limit=num

Artificially limit the nesting of macro calls to num levels, stopping program execution if this limit is ever exceeded. When not specified, nesting defaults to unlimited on platforms that can detect stack overflow, and to 1024 levels otherwise. A value of zero means unlimited; but then heavily nested code could potentially cause a stack overflow.

The precise effect of this option is more correctly associated with textual nesting than dynamic recursion. It has been useful when some complex m4 input was generated by mechanical means, and also in diagnosing recursive algorithms that do not scale well. Most users never need to change this option from its default.

This option does not have the ability to break endless rescanning loops, since these do not necessarily consume much memory or stack space. Through clever usage of rescanning loops, one can request complex, time-consuming computations from m4 with useful results. Putting limitations in this area would break m4 power. There are many pathological cases: `define(`a', `a')a' is only the simplest example (but see section Compatibility with other versions of m4). Expecting GNU m4 to detect these would be a little like expecting a compiler system to detect and diagnose endless loops: it is a quite hard problem in general, if not undecidable!

-B num
-S num
-T num

These options are present for compatibility with System V m4, but do nothing in this implementation. They may disappear in future releases, and issue a warning to that effect.

-N num
--diversions=num

These options are present only for compatibility with previous versions of GNU m4, and were controlling the number of possible diversions which could be used at the same time. They do nothing, because there is no fixed limit anymore. They may disappear in future releases, and issue a warning to that effect.


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2.4 Command line options for frozen state

GNU m4 comes with a feature of freezing internal state (see section Fast loading of frozen state). This can be used to speed up m4 execution when reusing a common initialization script.

-F file
--freeze-state=file

Once execution is finished, write out the frozen state on the specified file. It is conventional, but not required, for file to end in `.m4f'.

-R file
--reload-state=file

Before execution starts, recover the internal state from the specified frozen file. The options `-D', `-U', and `-t' take effect after state is reloaded, but before the input files are read.


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2.5 Command line options for debugging

Finally, there are several options for aiding in debugging m4 scripts.

-d[flags]
--debug[=flags]

Set the debug-level according to the flags flags. The debug-level controls the format and amount of information presented by the debugging functions. See section Controlling debugging output, for more details on the format and meaning of flags. If omitted, flags defaults to `aeq'.

--debugfile[=file]
-o file
--error-output=file

Redirect dumpdef output, debug messages, and trace output to the named file. Warnings, error messages, and errprint output are still printed to standard error. If these options are not used, or if file is unspecified (only possible for `--debugfile'), debug output goes to standard error; if file is the empty string, debug output is discarded. See section Saving debugging output, for more details. The option `--debugfile' may be given more than once, and order is significant with respect to file names. The spellings `-o' and `--error-output' are misleading and inconsistent with other GNU tools; for now they are silently accepted as synonyms of `--debugfile' and only recognized once, but in a future version of M4, using them will cause a warning to be issued.

-l num
--arglength=num

Restrict the size of the output generated by macro tracing to num characters per trace line. If unspecified or zero, output is unlimited. See section Controlling debugging output, for more details.

-t name
--trace=name

This enables tracing for the macro name, at any point where it is defined. name need not be defined when this option is given. This option may be given more than once, and order is significant with respect to file names. See section Tracing macro calls, for more details.


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2.6 Specifying input files on the command line

The remaining arguments on the command line are taken to be input file names. If no names are present, standard input is read. A file name of `-' is taken to mean standard input. It is conventional, but not required, for input files to end in `.m4'.

The input files are read in the sequence given. Standard input can be read more than once, so the file name `-' may appear multiple times on the command line; this makes a difference when input is from a terminal or other special file type. It is an error if an input file ends in the middle of argument collection, a comment, or a quoted string.

The options `--define' (`-D'), `--undefine' (`-U'), `--synclines' (`-s'), and `--trace' (`-t') only take effect after processing input from any file names that occur earlier on the command line. For example, assume the file `foo' contains:

 
$ cat foo
bar

The text `bar' can then be redefined over multiple uses of `foo':

 
$ m4 -Dbar=hello foo -Dbar=world foo
⇒hello
⇒world

If none of the input files invoked m4exit (see section Exiting from m4), the exit status of m4 will be 0 for success, 1 for general failure (such as problems with reading an input file), and 63 for version mismatch (see section Using frozen files).

If you need to read a file whose name starts with a `-', you can specify it as `./-file', or use `--' to mark the end of options.


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