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17. Altering Execution

Once you think you have found an error in your program, you might want to find out for certain whether correcting the apparent error would lead to correct results in the rest of the run. You can find the answer by experiment, using the GDB features for altering execution of the program.

For example, you can store new values into variables or memory locations, give your program a signal, restart it at a different address, or even return prematurely from a function.

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17.1 Assignment to Variables

To alter the value of a variable, evaluate an assignment expression. See section Expressions. For example,

print x=4

stores the value 4 into the variable x, and then prints the value of the assignment expression (which is 4). See section Using GDB with Different Languages, for more information on operators in supported languages.

If you are not interested in seeing the value of the assignment, use the set command instead of the print command. set is really the same as print except that the expression's value is not printed and is not put in the value history (see section Value History). The expression is evaluated only for its effects.

If the beginning of the argument string of the set command appears identical to a set subcommand, use the set variable command instead of just set. This command is identical to set except for its lack of subcommands. For example, if your program has a variable width, you get an error if you try to set a new value with just `set width=13', because GDB has the command set width:

(gdb) whatis width
type = double
(gdb) p width
$4 = 13
(gdb) set width=47
Invalid syntax in expression.

The invalid expression, of course, is `=47'. In order to actually set the program's variable width, use

(gdb) set var width=47

Because the set command has many subcommands that can conflict with the names of program variables, it is a good idea to use the set variable command instead of just set. For example, if your program has a variable g, you run into problems if you try to set a new value with just `set g=4', because GDB has the command set gnutarget, abbreviated set g:

(gdb) whatis g
type = double
(gdb) p g
$1 = 1
(gdb) set g=4
(gdb) p g
$2 = 1
(gdb) r
The program being debugged has been started already.
Start it from the beginning? (y or n) y
Starting program: /home/smith/cc_progs/a.out
"/home/smith/cc_progs/a.out": can't open to read symbols:
                                 Invalid bfd target.
(gdb) show g
The current BFD target is "=4".

The program variable g did not change, and you silently set the gnutarget to an invalid value. In order to set the variable g, use

(gdb) set var g=4

GDB allows more implicit conversions in assignments than C; you can freely store an integer value into a pointer variable or vice versa, and you can convert any structure to any other structure that is the same length or shorter.

To store values into arbitrary places in memory, use the `{…}' construct to generate a value of specified type at a specified address (see section Expressions). For example, {int}0x83040 refers to memory location 0x83040 as an integer (which implies a certain size and representation in memory), and

set {int}0x83040 = 4

stores the value 4 into that memory location.

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17.2 Continuing at a Different Address

Ordinarily, when you continue your program, you do so at the place where it stopped, with the continue command. You can instead continue at an address of your own choosing, with the following commands:

jump linespec
jump location

Resume execution at line linespec or at address given by location. Execution stops again immediately if there is a breakpoint there. See section Specifying a Location, for a description of the different forms of linespec and location. It is common practice to use the tbreak command in conjunction with jump. See section Setting Breakpoints.

The jump command does not change the current stack frame, or the stack pointer, or the contents of any memory location or any register other than the program counter. If line linespec is in a different function from the one currently executing, the results may be bizarre if the two functions expect different patterns of arguments or of local variables. For this reason, the jump command requests confirmation if the specified line is not in the function currently executing. However, even bizarre results are predictable if you are well acquainted with the machine-language code of your program.

On many systems, you can get much the same effect as the jump command by storing a new value into the register $pc. The difference is that this does not start your program running; it only changes the address of where it will run when you continue. For example,

set $pc = 0x485

makes the next continue command or stepping command execute at address 0x485, rather than at the address where your program stopped. See section Continuing and Stepping.

The most common occasion to use the jump command is to back up--perhaps with more breakpoints set--over a portion of a program that has already executed, in order to examine its execution in more detail.

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17.3 Giving your Program a Signal

signal signal

Resume execution where your program stopped, but immediately give it the signal signal. signal can be the name or the number of a signal. For example, on many systems signal 2 and signal SIGINT are both ways of sending an interrupt signal.

Alternatively, if signal is zero, continue execution without giving a signal. This is useful when your program stopped on account of a signal and would ordinary see the signal when resumed with the continue command; `signal 0' causes it to resume without a signal.

signal does not repeat when you press RET a second time after executing the command.

Invoking the signal command is not the same as invoking the kill utility from the shell. Sending a signal with kill causes GDB to decide what to do with the signal depending on the signal handling tables (see section Signals). The signal command passes the signal directly to your program.

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17.4 Returning from a Function

return expression

You can cancel execution of a function call with the return command. If you give an expression argument, its value is used as the function's return value.

When you use return, GDB discards the selected stack frame (and all frames within it). You can think of this as making the discarded frame return prematurely. If you wish to specify a value to be returned, give that value as the argument to return.

This pops the selected stack frame (see section Selecting a Frame), and any other frames inside of it, leaving its caller as the innermost remaining frame. That frame becomes selected. The specified value is stored in the registers used for returning values of functions.

The return command does not resume execution; it leaves the program stopped in the state that would exist if the function had just returned. In contrast, the finish command (see section Continuing and Stepping) resumes execution until the selected stack frame returns naturally.

GDB needs to know how the expression argument should be set for the inferior. The concrete registers assignment depends on the OS ABI and the type being returned by the selected stack frame. For example it is common for OS ABI to return floating point values in FPU registers while integer values in CPU registers. Still some ABIs return even floating point values in CPU registers. Larger integer widths (such as long long int) also have specific placement rules. GDB already knows the OS ABI from its current target so it needs to find out also the type being returned to make the assignment into the right register(s).

Normally, the selected stack frame has debug info. GDB will always use the debug info instead of the implicit type of expression when the debug info is available. For example, if you type return -1, and the function in the current stack frame is declared to return a long long int, GDB transparently converts the implicit int value of -1 into a long long int:

Breakpoint 1, func () at gdb.base/return-nodebug.c:29
29        return 31;
(gdb) return -1
Make func return now? (y or n) y
#0  0x004004f6 in main () at gdb.base/return-nodebug.c:43
43        printf ("result=%lld\n", func ());

However, if the selected stack frame does not have a debug info, e.g., if the function was compiled without debug info, GDB has to find out the type to return from user. Specifying a different type by mistake may set the value in different inferior registers than the caller code expects. For example, typing return -1 with its implicit type int would set only a part of a long long int result for a debug info less function (on 32-bit architectures). Therefore the user is required to specify the return type by an appropriate cast explicitly:

Breakpoint 2, 0x0040050b in func ()
(gdb) return -1
Return value type not available for selected stack frame.
Please use an explicit cast of the value to return.
(gdb) return (long long int) -1
Make selected stack frame return now? (y or n) y
#0  0x00400526 in main ()

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17.5 Calling Program Functions

print expr

Evaluate the expression expr and display the resulting value. expr may include calls to functions in the program being debugged.

call expr

Evaluate the expression expr without displaying void returned values.

You can use this variant of the print command if you want to execute a function from your program that does not return anything (a.k.a. a void function), but without cluttering the output with void returned values that GDB will otherwise print. If the result is not void, it is printed and saved in the value history.

It is possible for the function you call via the print or call command to generate a signal (e.g., if there's a bug in the function, or if you passed it incorrect arguments). What happens in that case is controlled by the set unwindonsignal command.

Similarly, with a C++ program it is possible for the function you call via the print or call command to generate an exception that is not handled due to the constraints of the dummy frame. In this case, any exception that is raised in the frame, but has an out-of-frame exception handler will not be found. GDB builds a dummy-frame for the inferior function call, and the unwinder cannot seek for exception handlers outside of this dummy-frame. What happens in that case is controlled by the set unwind-on-terminating-exception command.

set unwindonsignal

Set unwinding of the stack if a signal is received while in a function that GDB called in the program being debugged. If set to on, GDB unwinds the stack it created for the call and restores the context to what it was before the call. If set to off (the default), GDB stops in the frame where the signal was received.

show unwindonsignal

Show the current setting of stack unwinding in the functions called by GDB.

set unwind-on-terminating-exception

Set unwinding of the stack if a C++ exception is raised, but left unhandled while in a function that GDB called in the program being debugged. If set to on (the default), GDB unwinds the stack it created for the call and restores the context to what it was before the call. If set to off, GDB the exception is delivered to the default C++ exception handler and the inferior terminated.

show unwind-on-terminating-exception

Show the current setting of stack unwinding in the functions called by GDB.

Sometimes, a function you wish to call is actually a weak alias for another function. In such case, GDB might not pick up the type information, including the types of the function arguments, which causes GDB to call the inferior function incorrectly. As a result, the called function will function erroneously and may even crash. A solution to that is to use the name of the aliased function instead.

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17.6 Patching Programs

By default, GDB opens the file containing your program's executable code (or the corefile) read-only. This prevents accidental alterations to machine code; but it also prevents you from intentionally patching your program's binary.

If you'd like to be able to patch the binary, you can specify that explicitly with the set write command. For example, you might want to turn on internal debugging flags, or even to make emergency repairs.

set write on
set write off

If you specify `set write on', GDB opens executable and core files for both reading and writing; if you specify set write off (the default), GDB opens them read-only.

If you have already loaded a file, you must load it again (using the exec-file or core-file command) after changing set write, for your new setting to take effect.

show write

Display whether executable files and core files are opened for writing as well as reading.

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